Articles by Dr. Wise Young PhD, MD

  • 28 March 2006.  Gabapentin: Neuropathic Pain and Body Weight Gain.  
  • 5 September 2005.  4-Aminopyridine Treatment for Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.  
  • 15 August 2005.  Christopher Reeve Memorial Service: My Notes.  These are my notes from the Memorial Service held for Christopher Reeve on October 29, 2004.
  • 28 February 2005.  Carnosine as a Neuroprotective Agent?  Carnosine is a natural endogenous neuroprotective dipeptide that is found in muscles and brain. What is its role in brain and spinal cord injury?
  • 27 February 2005.  Traumatic Brain Injury and Brain Tumors.  Does brain injury cause brain tumors?
  • 26 February 2005.  Is a Cure Really Possible?  Reasons why people are doubtful and pessimistic, and reasons why curative therapies for spinal cord injury are possible.
  • 22 February 2005.  Ten Frequentlly Asked Questions Concerning Cure of Spinal Cord Injury.  Answers to the questions.
  • 21 February 2005.  Bases for Hope for Spinal Cord Injury 2005.  Updated lecture by Wise Young summarizing the current status of care and cure of spinal cord injury. Download a pdf file containing the slides and notes of the lecture.
  • 11 October 2004.  A Eulogy for Christopher Reeve.   By Dr. Wise Young.
  • 2 August 2004.  Most popular topics on the Cure Forum.   Compiled by Seneca.
  • 12 December 2003.  Bases for Hope in Spinal Cord Injury.  Lecture by Wise Young summarizing the progress in spinal cord injury care and research 1995-2003, current clinical trials, and therapies that are being considered for clinical trial. Download a pdf file containing the slides and notes of the lecture.
  • 28 July 2003.  Duragesic Treatment of Pain.  A Pain Forum recently asked whether Duragesic patches would be effective for neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury. This article summarizes the medical literature on this subject. Download the pdf file.
  • 24 June 2003.  Spinal Cord Injury Levels and Classification.  Learn about how the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) categorizes spinal cord injury and levels. Download the pdf file.
  • 8 May 2003.  Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury.  Although spinal cord injury is relatively rare in children, accounting for less than 5% of spinal cord injuries, it is devastating and frequently involves the upper cervical spinal cord. Download the pdf file.
  • 7 May 2003.  Theophylline Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury.  Theophylline is a drug that has long been used to treat asthma. Much data suggest that it stimulates axonal excitability and plasticity. It has been shown to improve respiratory function in animals with high cervical spinal cord injury. This is a brief review of the literature describing its mechanisms of action and effects on spinal cord injury. Last updated 7 May 2003. Download pdf file.
  • 17 March 2003.  3,4 diaminopyridine (DAP).  This drug is a potassium channel blocker that is closely related to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). DAP has been used for many years to treat a rare neuromuscular degenerative disease called Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome. Unlike 4-AP, DAP does not readily cross the blood brain barrier and therefore has less effects on the central nervous system. However, analysis of clinical trial reports suggest that DAP has side-effects that are similar to 4-AP. Download the pdf file.
  • 14 March 2003.  Family and Spinal Cord Injury.  This article summarizes the effects of spinal cord injury on family members, marriages, and family relationships. Download the pdf file.
  • 27 February 2003.  Acute Spinal Cord Injury.  This is an article about what to ask and frequently asked questions for people and families with new spinal cord injuries. Download the pdf file.
  • 29 November 2002.  Morality of Stem Cells.  I gave this lecture for the Rutgers Scholar's program, summarizing the raucous debate on human embryonic stem cells and cloning in the United States.
  • 25 November 2002.  Advances in Spinal Cord Injury Therapies.  There has been concern that spinal cord injury research is going very slowly. This article lists major therapeutic advances in spinal cord injury research since 1995. This is a modified version of a posting. Download the pdf file.
  • 25 November 2002.  Testimony to New Jersey State Senate Health Human Services & Senior Citizen Committee.  on the New Jersey Stem Cell Act of 2003 (download S1909).
  • 20 November 2002.  Spinal Cord Injury Therapies (Powerpoint).  This lecture summarizes the latest advances in spinal cord injury therapy since 1995 to the 2002. Download pdf or powerpoint (2.3 Mb) file.
  • 16 October 2002.  Current SCI Clinical Trials 2002.  One of the most frequently asked questions is what clinical trials are going on that people with SCI can participate in. While the Trials Forum on sciwire forums lists all the ongoing trials, there are too many trials on that list for a person to peruse through. So, here is a list of the clinical trials and some of the medical literature that describe the therapies being tested.
  • 26 July 2002.  Benefits and Risks of Decompressive Spinal Surgery.  Several studies have shown that, if the spinal cord is compressed by bone, extruded disc, or narrowing of the spinal column, decompression of the cord can result in improved motor function and reduced pain. This article summarizes the data and the implications for spinal cord injury trials. Download the file in word.doc format.
  • 2 July 2002.  Creatine Use during Exercise in Spinal Cord Injury? .  Many people have asked about creatine and whether they should use it in conjunction with exercise. This article summarizes the medical literature on the subject. In my opinion, there is substantial evidence that creatine may facilitate muscle exercises.
  • 20 June 2002.  A Member's View of Therapeutic Cloning Research.  Bill Johnson is a long-time and active member of the CareCure Community. In a recent topic; in the Cure Forum , he summarized his view of the arguments against and for therapeutic cloning research. This is a thoughtful and insightful commentary.
  • 20 June 2002.  The Effects of Intensive Training on Motor Recovery.  Much evidence indicate that intensive training can remarkably restore motor function many years after stroke and spinal cord injury. An emerging theory suggests that the central nervous system shuts off neuronal circuits that are not used, a phenomenon called "learned non-use". This article summarize the evidence underlying the effects of intensive motor training on recovery, particularly supported weight ambulatory training to restore locomotion in people with chronic spinal cord injury. Download a pdf or doc version of the file.
  • 20 June 2002.  CareCure Glossary (20 June 2002).  This is an attempt to define some words that are commonly used in spinal cord injury research. The definitions are hyperlinked to each other so that the file can be used not only to look up words but to be read by starting from any definition and then going from link to link. You can download a pdf or doc version of the file to read offline.
  • 29 May 2002.  SCI Therapy Schedule.  The most frequently asked question on the CareCure Community Forums is when restorative therapies for spinal cord injury. While nobody can predict the future, it is possible to estimate the earliest times that specific therapies may be available, assuming that all goes well and that adequate resources are available to develop the therapies. The results may be surprising to some.
  • 26 April 2002.  Genitourinary Tract Infections and Infertility (26 April 2002).  Many people with SCI have frequent urinary tract infections (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (bacteria in urine without evidence of systemic infection). Clinicians generally will not treat the latter because antibiotics usua lly do not eradicate bacteriuria and can produce antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This article reviews the medical literature on the subject and whether bacteriuria or bacterospermia (bacteria in ejaculate) affects fertility in males after spinal cord injury.
  • 2 April 2002.  Restorative Therapies for Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Part 1 Rehabilitative Therapies (2 April 2002).  One of the most frequently asked questions on the Carecure forums is what therapies can restore function. Here, I summarize three major categories of available and potential therapies that can restore function to people with chronic spinal cord injury.
  • 31 March 2002.  Rerouting Peripheral Nerves.  Surgeons have long used peripheral nerve rerouting to restore function to denervated muscles and organs, taking advantage of the ability of peripheral axons to regenerate. Several surgeons have been applying this approach to restoring function in people with chronic spinal cord injury. This article explains and critically reviews this approach to treating spinal cord injury.
  • 18 March 2002.  State of the Community (18 Mar 2002).  This web site began on July 26, 2001. This article summarizes the development, current state, and plans for the community. Detailed statistics are included.
  • 20 February 2002.  Suprapubic versus urethral catheterization.  This article reviews studies comparing urethral and suprapubic catheterization in people with SCI. The studies indicate that suprapubic catheterization is superior to both chronic indwelling and intermittent urethral catheterization for reducing bladder infections and kidney damage.
  • 3 February 2002.  Parthenogenic Stem Cells.  On February 1, 2002, Cibelli, et al. report that they were successful in stimulating 4 of 28 non-fertilized monkey eggs resulted in blastocysts that yielded viable stem cells. Parthenogenesis is the process of t ricking an egg into believing that it has been fertilized when it has not been. The cells from parthenogenic eggs are haploid, i.e. have only one set of chromosomes, while normally cells should have two sets of chromosomes. The article can be accessed from Science Magazine (Rutgers students can download the pdf file of the article)
  • 3 February 2002.  Epidural spinal cord stimulation to active walking.  On February 1, 2002, Herman, et al. from the Good Samaritan Hospital in Tucson, Arizona reported success in improving locomotion in a quadriplegic patient by stimulating the L1-2 spinal cord. Overground locomotor exercise over a 1.5 year period improved walking time from 150 to 130 secon ds to traverse 15 meters. Epidural stimulation of the spinal cord resulted in a dramatic improvement in walking speed, distance, and decreased energy consumption.
  • 17 January 2002.  Immunophilins and Their Roles in CNS Injury.  Cyclosporin A and related immunosuppressive drugs such as tacrolimus (FK-506) have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects. These drugs are part of a huge family of bacterial toxins that affect proteins medi ating and regulating immune and other responses of neurons and lymphocytes. The story of immunophilins and their discovery is also one of the most revealing stories in biomedical research, how an obscure bacterial toxin elucidated the biology of cell regu lation that will have significant impact on many medical problems, including transplantation, inflammatory diseases, and neuroregeneration.
  • 10 January 2002.  Spinal Cord Atrophy.  People sometimes hear about atrophy in their spinal cord. Magnetic resonance images of their spinal cords may show a narrower spinal cord and cysts in the cord. Some are afraid that the atrophy means that the spinal cord has been damaged above or below the injury site and may have implications for recovery or regeneration. This article considers the causes spinal cord atrophy, what should happen, and what should not occur after injury.
  • 10 January 2002.  Spinal Cord Vascular and Cerebrospinal Fluid Supply.  Many people do not understand the vascular and cerebrospinal fluid supply of the spinal cord. Blockade of th ese two system account for some of the most devastating problems of the spinal cord: spinal cord ischemia and development of syringomyelic cysts. This article summarizes the vascular anatomy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system of the spinal cord.
  • 10 January 2002.  A Cost Analysis of Spinal Cord Injury Research.  Many people are raising funds for spinal cord injury (SCI) research but do not have a clear idea of what the funds are paying for. In the article, I will explain research grants and the cost of SCI research, the funding situation in the field, how to improve the quality and rate of research, and what we are doing at Rutgers University to encourage collaboration.
  • 10 January 2002.  Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury.  Many people and animals recover from devastating injuries that must have destroyed as much as 90% of the spinal tracts at the injury site. I have long felt that if we understood and can implement the mechanisms by which people and animals recover from spinal cord injury, we would have a cure. How and why do people and animals recover from spinal cord injury?
  • 10 January 2002.  Experimental Therapies of Spinal Cord Injury.  Many experimental therapies reported to improve function after spinal cord injury. In this article, I try to categorize and list most of the therapies. This list will be updated regularly, including links to literature references on the subject.
  • 10 January 2002.  Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.  There is much confusion about the terms acute, subacute, and chronic spinal cord injury. This is understandable because there is no standard definition of these terms. Here, I would like to define the phases, what appears to be happening in the spinal cord during each phase, and the appearance of the spinal cord in each phase.
  • 2 December 2001.  Cure and Spinal Cord Injury.  How often is the word "cure" was used in the medical literature in conjunction with spinal cord injury? Over 23,000 articles contained "spinal cord injury" and only 139 of these also included the word "cure". Only 15 articles published in the last 50 years referred to cure of spinal cord injury and over half were published in the last two years.
  • 20 November 2001.  Enteric Glial Cells.  We have glial cells in our guts that may behave like olfactory ensheathing glia. This article summarizes recent studies, including studies from Dr. Michel Rathbone's laboratory at McMaster University in Canada.
  • 19 November 2001.  Highlights from the Society for Neuroscience in San Diego 2001.  This Powerpoint presentation summarizes hig hlights from this annual meeting, focussing on exciting developments for spinal cord injury research.
  • 7 November 2001.  Cranberry Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections.  Do cranberry juice or concentrates prevent urinary tract infections? This article reviews clinical trials and mechanisms of cranberry effects on bladder infections.
  • 5 November 2001.  Wintergarden after September 11.  Many people who worked on Wall Street came to the fundraiser and contributed generously to spinal cord injury research. The September 11 attack devastated not only the World Trade Center but the World Financial Center as well where we held our CURE fundraisers.
  • 5 November 2001.  Intravesicular Treatment of Spastic Bladder.  Recent clinical trials indicate that instillation of capsaicin (the essence of pepper) or resiniferatoxin (RTX, from a cactus like plant) into the bladder can reduce bladder spasticity for weeks.
  • 26 October 2001.  Caring from a Caregiver.  This article written by BirdeR from our CareCure Forums contains some sound and heartfelt advice about caregiving and how to take care of oneself as well. This is a real keeper.
  • 24 October 2001.  Methylprednisolone Treatment of Pregnant Women with Spinal Cord Injury.  The original NASCIS trials excluded pregnant women. This article reviews use of methylprednisolone in pregnant women with spinal cord injury.
  • 23 October 2001.  Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.  This article summarizes potential risks and benefits of this therapy for brain and spinal cord injury, including a comprehensive review of the published literature on the subject.
  • 15 October 2001.  Spinal Cord Injury Hope Lecture.  This lecture summarizes the bases for hope in the field, comparing the state of the art in 1995 with today. It discusses clinical trials that are going on and future therapy development.

    Wise Young PhD MD, Professor II & Director
    W M Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience
    Rutgers, State University of New Jersey604 Allison Rd,
    Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082
    tel: 732/445-2061, fax: 732/445-2063
    email: wisey@pipeline.com

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