Join Date: Jul 2001
Location: New Brunswick, NJ, USA
Based on the above information, Glenn needs to get his operation soon. He is very lucky that they found the malignancy at an early stage. Jefferson is a very good hospital and Magee is a very experienced spinal cord rehabilitation center. If they have not yet found a urologist, I can ask my good friend John Ditunno for a recommendation of a urologist at Jefferson. The Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson is very good and has urologists with a lot of experience with bladder cancer.
I did a literature search and found the following recent articles by urologists in Philadelphia. The abstracts below contain addresses and emails of the authors in the articles. The literature search also reveals active bladder cancer research at the University of Pennsylvania and Fox-Chase Cancer Center associated with Temple University.
Regarding the clots, they should be gone by now. Bleeding occurs after cystoscopy when the bladder is expanded so that the urologist can take a really good look. When the bladder is not well stretched out with pressure so that one can get a really good look, one may miss subtle areas of transitional cancer. It may be this urologist is not use to dealing with people who have spinal cord injury and small bladders due to indwelling foley catheterization. Tell her not to worry about it. The thing to do now is get the bladder out ASAP. This is a curable disease if caught early.
- Baffa R, Letko J, McClung C, LeNoir J, Vecchione A and Gomella LG (2006). Molecular genetics of bladder cancer: targets for diagnosis and therapy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 25: 145-60. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is a common tumor. While most patients presenting superficial disease can be expected to do well following treatment, still many patients will return to our office with muscle invasive and metastatic disease. Survival in advanced bladder cancer is less than 50%. Tumors of similar histologic grade and stage have variable behavior, suggesting that genetic alterations must be present to explain the diverse behavior of bladder cancer. It is hoped that through the study of the subtle genetic alterations in bladder cancer, important prognostic and therapeutic targets can be exploited. Many new diagnostic tests and gene therapy approaches rely on the identification and targeting of these unique genetic alterations. A review of literature published on the molecular genetics of bladder cancer from 1970 to the present was conducted. A variety of molecular genetic alterations have been identified in bladder cancer. Oncogenes (H-ras, erbB-2, EGFR, MDM2, C-MYC, CCND1), tumor suppressor genes (p53, Rb, p21, p27/KIP1, p16, PTEN, STK15, FHIT, FEZ1/LZTS1, bc10), telomerase, and methylation have all been studied in bladder cancer. Several have proven to be potentially useful clinical targets in the prognosis and therapy of bladder cancer such as staining for p53 and gene therapy strategies such as p53 and fez1. Clinical trials targeting HER2/neu and the EGFR pathways are underway. The UroVysion bladder cancer assay relies on FISH to detect genetic alterations in this disease. Continuing identification of the molecular genetic alterations in bladder cancer will enhance future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder cancer. Capitalizing on these alterations will allow early detection, providing important prognostic information and unique targets for gene therapy and other therapeutic approaches. Department of Urology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. R_Baffa@mail.jci.tju.edu http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=16918124
- Monami G, Gonzalez EM, Hellman M, Gomella LG, Baffa R, Iozzo RV and Morrione A (2006). Proepithelin promotes migration and invasion of 5637 bladder cancer cells through the activation of ERK1/2 and the formation of a paxillin/FAK/ERK complex. Cancer Res 66: 7103-10. The growth factor proepithelin (also known as progranulin, acrogranin, PC-derived growth factor, or granulin-epithelin precursor) is a secreted glycoprotein that functions as an important regulator of cell growth, migration, and transformation. Proepithelin is overexpressed in a great variety of cancer cell lines and clinical specimens of breast, ovarian, and renal cancer as well as glioblastomas. In this study, we have investigated the effects of proepithelin on bladder cancer cells using human recombinant proepithelin purified to homogeneity from 293-EBNA cells. Although proepithelin did not appreciably affect cell growth, it did promote migration of 5637 bladder cancer cells and stimulate in vitro wound closure and invasion. These effects required the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and paxillin, which upon proepithelin stimulation formed a complex with focal adhesion kinase and active extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of proepithelin in stimulating migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells, and support the hypothesis that this growth factor may play a critical role in the establishment of the invasive phenotype. Department of Urology, Anatomy and Cell Biology and Cellular Biology and Signaling Program, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=16849556
- Brown JA, Strup SE, Chenven E, Bagley D and Gomella LG (2005). Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: analysis of distal ureterectomy technique, margin status, and surgical outcomes. Urology 66: 1192-6. OBJECTIVES: To review our experience with various techniques used to manage the distal ureter during hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and to evaluate the surgical outcomes, including pathologic margin status and the incidence of disease recurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 55 hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomies performed to treat transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), with the distal ureter managed as follows: cystoscopic disarticulation in 16 patients, stapled division in 7, open distal ureterectomy in 3, and hand-assisted laparoscopic extravesical en bloc distal ureterectomy with bladder cuff in 29. The cystotomy was not closed in 7 patients. RESULTS: The coexistence of renal pelvic and ureteral tumors was common but in 27% of cases was not recognized preoperatively. One outer and four distal ureteral margins were positive for tumor (n = 2) or carcinoma in situ (n = 3). Two (29%) of the seven cystotomies that were not closed and only 1 (2%) of the 42 that were closed demonstrated extravasation. The operative time was 60 to 90 minutes longer and the estimated blood loss, open conversion rate, and indwelling catheterization time were two to three times greater for the cystoscopic ureteral disarticulation cohort. The stapled division cohort had a greater positive margin rate (29%) than the other cohorts (10% or less). With a mean follow-up of 24 months, 19 patients had developed bladder cancer, 1 prostate cancer, 1 an extravesical malignancy with synchronous liver metastasis, and 4 distant recurrence (lung in 2 and the retroperitoneum and spine in 1 each). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that distal ureteral tumors have the greatest likelihood for a positive margin. Cystoscopic ureteral disarticulation increased the operative time and estimated blood loss. Cystotomy closure reduced the extravasation rate. We favor hand-assisted laparoscopic en bloc distal ureterectomy followed by cystotomy closure to minimize the risk of distal ureteral or extravesical recurrence. Department of Urology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=16360439
- Kim IA, Bae SS, Fernandes A, Wu J, Muschel RJ, McKenna WG, Birnbaum MJ and Bernhard EJ (2005). Selective inhibition of Ras, phosphoinositide 3 kinase, and Akt isoforms increases the radiosensitivity of human carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Res 65: 7902-10. Ras activation promotes the survival of tumor cells after DNA damage. To reverse this survival advantage, Ras signaling has been targeted for inhibition. Other contributors to Ras-mediated DNA damage survival have been identified using pharmacologic inhibition of signaling, but this approach is limited by the specificity of the inhibitors used and their toxicity. To better define components of Ras signaling that could be inhibited in a clinical setting, RNA interference was used to selectively block expression of specific isoforms of Ras, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase, and Akt. Inhibition of oncogenic Ras expression decreased both phospho-Akt and phospho-p42/44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase levels and reduced clonogenic survival. Because pharmacologic inhibition of PI3 kinases and Akt radiosensitized cell lines with active Ras signaling, whereas inhibition of the MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase/ERK pathway did not, we examined the contribution of PI3 kinases and Akts to radiation survival. Selective inhibition the PI3 kinase P110alpha + p85beta isoforms reduced Akt phosphorylation and radiation survival. Similarly, inhibition of Akt-1 reduced tumor cell radiation survival. Inhibition of Akt-2 or Akt-3 had less effect. Retroviral transduction and overexpression of mouse Akt-1 was shown to rescue cells from inhibition of endogenous human Akt-1 expression. This study shows that Ras signaling to the PI3 kinase-Akt pathway is an important contributor to survival, whether Ras activation results from mutation of ras or overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor. This study further shows that selective inhibition of the PI3 kinase P110alpha + p85beta isoforms or Akt-1 could be a viable approach to sensitizing many tumor cells to cytotoxic therapies. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6072, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=16140961
- Viterbo R, Greenberg RE, Al-Saleem T and Uzzo RG (2005). Prior abdominal surgery and radiation do not complicate the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney or adrenal gland. J Urol 174: 446-50. PURPOSE: Laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery is an accepted standard of care. This can be accomplished by a transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach. In patients with extensive prior intra-abdominal surgery with or without radiation the retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach may avoid bowel adhesions and potential operative complications. We compared clinical outcomes of the laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach in patients with prior open abdominal surgery with or without radiation to outcomes in those with no surgical history. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated clinical and functional parameters in 78 consecutive patients undergoing retroperitoneoscopic renal or adrenal surgery performed by a single surgeon in a 36-month period, including radical nephrectomy with or without ureterectomy in 50, nerve sparing surgery in 8, ablation in 16 and adrenalectomy in 4. All transperitoneal procedures during the same period were excluded from analysis. Patients were divided into 48 who underwent prior abdominal surgery with or without radiation (group 1) and 30 who did not (group 2). Prior abdominal surgeries in group 1 patients were open and they were major in 42 and/or minor in 39. An additional 6 patients in group 1 received prior abdominal radiation overlapping the planned surgical field. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were noted between the groups in any parameter assessed, including operative time, blood loss, time to first oral intake, hospital stay or the complication rate (p >0.05). There were no enterotomies in either group. There were no open conversions in group 1, while there were 2 in group 2 (renal vein injury and splenorrhaphy secondary to lymphoma, respectively). Pathological findings showed malignancy in 57 cases (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, carcinoid disease and metastases) and benign disease in 21 (oncocytoma, adenoma, pyelonephritis and complex cysts). All margins were negative except in 1 group patient with carcinoma in situ at the bladder cuff margin. CONCLUSIONS: The retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney and adrenal glands can be used in patients with extensive prior open abdominal surgery and/or radiation without significant increases in morbidity or convalescence. Department of Urological Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=16006862
- Campbell C, Soulen MC, Horii SC, Seigelman ES, Rubesin SE and Vaughn DJ (2005). Transrectal radiofrequency ablation for pelvic recurrence of bladder cancer: case report and review of complications. J Vasc Interv Radiol 16: 1027-32. Pelvic recurrences after radical surgery for intestinal and urologic cancers can cause substantial pain and morbidity as a result of nerve and visceral organ invasion. Treatment options are frequently limited by previous radiation and inefficacy of systemic chemotherapy. There are a few reports of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for local control or palliation of symptoms, but this approach has been associated with considerable morbidity. In the present case, transrectal RF ablation of recurrent bladder cancer was performed for palliation of intractable pain. The associated complications and the pertinent literature will be reviewed. Division of Interventional Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 1 Silverstein, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=16002513
- Razdan S, Johannes J, Cox M and Bagley DH (2005). Current practice patterns in urologic management of upper-tract transitional-cell carcinoma. J Endourol 19: 366-71. PURPOSE: To determine the current practice patterns in the management of upper-tract transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) among a large group of urologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was sent to 220 practicing members of the Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO) and the Endourological Society (ES) and members of the American Urological Association who did not belong to either society. The survey consisted of 16 focused questions pertaining to the surveillance and management of upper-tract TCC. The responses were used to create a database, which was then analyzed to determine practice trends. RESULTS: Eighty-four of the urologists responded, for a response rate of 38%. Fourteen responses were excluded because of multiple answers to a given question, so 70 were included in the final analysis. Eighty percent of the respondents were in academic practice. A CT urogram was the favored initial procedure for diagnosis of upper-tract TCC and an intravenous urogram was the next commonest choice (53% and 40%, respectively). Ureterorenoscopy was the surveillance tool of choice (70%) after conservative treatment of upper- tract TCC. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was the preferred procedure (73%) for a high-grade, large renal-pelvic TCC. Twenty-one percent of the endourologists recommended ureteroscopic ablation for a high-grade, large distal ureteral tumor. This was in sharp contrast to 77% of the respondents who favored a distal ureterectomy for the same clinical scenario. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that most urologists treating upper-tract TCC follow the principles reported in the published literature regarding the management of these patients. Further, most urologists, regardless of society affiliations or years in practice, favor minimally invasive techniques for the management of upper-tract TCC. This information may be useful in formulating clear guidelines for the management of this disease. Department of Urology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1025 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15865529
- Vaughn DJ and Malkowicz SB (2005). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 32: 231-7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been extensively investigated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. When taken together, the randomized controlled trials of neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy demonstrate an improved survival over cystectomy alone. In addition, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can result in downstaging of primary tumors. As noted, a pT0 disease status at cystectomy is associated with a significant improvement in survival. A randomized controlled trial comparing neoadjuvant to adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy shows that neither approach is superior. Finally, the ongoing EORTC/SWOG adjuvant chemotherapy trial, when completed, should add importantly to the literature concerning the role of systemic chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania, 16 Penn Tower, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15862620
- Genega EM, Kapali M, Torres-Quinones M, Huang WC, Knauss JS, Wang LP, Raghunath PN, Kozlowski C, Malkowicz SB and Tomaszewski JE (2005). Impact of the 1998 World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology classification system for urothelial neoplasms of the kidney. Mod Pathol 18: 11-8. The classification of urothelial neoplasms of the kidney traditionally has been similar to that of urinary bladder tumors. Several years ago, the classification of papillary urothelial neoplasms was revised. The current study focuses on the application of the 1998 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathology classification system to 102 renal pelvic urothelial neoplasms and compares it to the 1973 WHO classification scheme. In this study, all tumors were classified as urothelial carcinomas, and the majority (85%) were papillary. Most patients with papillary tumors presented with 'superficial' disease (< or = pT1). With the 1998 system, most papillary carcinomas were high grade, and were more often invasive as compared to low-grade tumors. Only 34% were low-grade papillary tumors and, of these, most (93%) were noninvasive. With the 1973 system, most papillary tumors were grade 2 or 3, with invasion more common in grade 3 tumors. By 1973 criteria, grade 2 tumors were a heterogeneous group; with 1998 criteria, nearly one-half were high grade and the other half low grade. The grade of papillary urothelial carcinomas with both the 1973 and 1998 grading methods was associated with stage (P=0.001). Our study reveals that papillomas and papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential are uncommon tumors in the kidney. Renal pelvic papillary urothelial neoplasms are most often carcinomas and are more commonly high grade than low grade. Although both the 1973 and 1998 systems showed a significant association with tumor stage, grade 2 papillary carcinomas are a heterogeneous group by 1973 criteria. The 1998 system provides useful information in that it more clearly defines a papillary tumor's grade and selects for a group of tumors, namely low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas, for which a low likelihood of invasion can be predicted. Department of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. email@example.com http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15475938
- Beitz JM (2004). Continent diversions: the new gold standards of ileoanal reservoir and neobladder. Ostomy Wound Manage 50: 26-35; quiz 36-7. In recent decades, surgical treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis, chronic ulcerative colitis, and muscle-invasive bladder cancer has undergone a revolution. Specifically, ileoanal reservoir and neobladder have become the new "gold standard" of definitive surgical therapy for these disorders. This article discusses issues in surgical construction, indications, contraindications, perioperative care concepts, and nursing and health professional implications related to these two procedures. These interventions include screening candidates for ileoanal reservoir or neobladder to rule out Crohn's disease or metastatic cancer and educating candidates for continent diversions about the proposed procedure(s) and associated events, potential complications, postoperative exercise, sexual health and function issues, and the benefits of support group participation so they can gain a realistic understanding of ultimate functional outcomes. Questions for future research are addressed. Nursing Certificate and Distributive Learning Programs, School of Nursing, La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA 19141, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15361631
- Mallampati GK and Siegelman ES (2004). MR imaging of the bladder. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 12: 545-55, vii. MR imaging is a useful modality for evaluating diseases of the bladder. MR imaging can detect and stage bladder cancer by determining the presence and depth of muscle invasion.Direct multiplanar imaging and superb soft-tissue contrast make MR imaging an ideal modality for evaluating less common neoplastic diseases of the bladder, such as urachal carcinoma, and tumors that develop within bladder diverticula. Dynamic breath-held fast T2-weighted imaging can evaluate for cystocele and other components of pelvic floor relaxation. Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 1st Floor Founders-MRI, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4283, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15271370
- Dulaimi E, Uzzo RG, Greenberg RE, Al-Saleem T and Cairns P (2004). Detection of bladder cancer in urine by a tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation panel. Clin Cancer Res 10: 1887-93. PURPOSE: Bladder cancer is potentially curable in the majority of cases; however, the prognosis for patients with advanced disease at presentation remains poor. Current noninvasive tests such as cytology lack sufficient sensitivity to detect low-grade, low-stage tumors. Silencing of tumor suppressor genes, such as p16(INK4a), VHL, and the mismatch repair gene hMLH1, has established promoter hypermethylation as a common mechanism for tumor suppressor inactivation in human cancers. It is also a promising new target for molecular detection in bodily fluids including urine, a readily accessible fluid known to contain bladder cancer cells. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) can determine the presence or absence of methylation of a gene locus at a sensitivity level of up to 1 methylated allele in 1000 unmethylated alleles, appropriate for identifying cancer cell DNA in a bodily fluid. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We first determined the frequency of hypermethylation of the Rb tumor suppressor gene by bisulfite sequencing and of the p16(INK4a), p14(ARF), APC, and RASSF1A tumor suppressor genes by MSP in 45 bladder cancers. We then designed a panel optimal for diagnostic coverage composed of the APC, RASSF1A, and p14(ARF) tumor suppressor genes. This panel was tested for detection of hypermethylation in matched sediment DNA from urine specimens obtained before surgery from the same 45 bladder cancer patients (2 Tis, 16 Ta, 10 T1, and 17 T2-4) as well as normal and benign control DNAs. RESULTS: Hypermethylation of at least one of three suppressor genes (APC, RASSF1A, and p14(ARF)) was found in all 45 tumor DNAs (100% diagnostic coverage). We detected gene hypermethylation in the matched urine DNA from 39 of 45 patients (87% sensitivity), including 16 cases that had negative cytology. No hypermethylation of APC, RASSF1A, or p14(ARF) was observed in normal transitional cell DNAs or in urine DNAs from normal healthy individuals and patients with inflammatory urinary disease (cystitis). Furthermore, an unmethylated gene in the tumor DNA was always found to be unmethylated in the matched urine DNA (100% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is common in bladder cancer and was found in all grades and stages of tumors examined. Hypermethylation was detected in the urine DNA from 39 of 45 (87%) patients, including cases of early-stage disease amenable to cure. MSP may enhance early detection of bladder cancer using a noninvasive urine test. Departments of Surgical Oncology and Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=15041703
- Genega EM and Porter CR (2002). Urothelial neoplasms of the kidney and ureter. An epidemiologic, pathologic, and clinical review. Am J Clin Pathol 117 Suppl: S36-48. Urothelial neoplasms occur with varying frequency at different sites along the urothelial tract. Approximately 5% of urothelial neoplasms occur in the kidneys and ureters, while the majority of these tumors occur in the urinary bladder. Consequently, urothelial disease of the bladder has been evaluated to a greater extent than urothelial tumors elsewhere, and many of the features of bladder urothelial neoplasms have been applied to these tumors at other sites. While the classification of urothelial neoplasms is the same for tumors in the bladder, kidney, and ureter, there are some features of urothelial neoplasms of the kidney and ureter that are unique to these sites. An epidemiologic, pathologic, and clinical review of urothelial neoplasms of the kidney and ureter is presented. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=14569801
Last edited by Wise Young; 09-03-2006 at 04:19 PM.