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Thread: First Steps Towards Spinal Cord Reconstruction Following Injury Using Stem Cells

  1. #1

    First Steps Towards Spinal Cord Reconstruction Following Injury Using Stem Cells

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...1112172133.htm

    A new study has identified what may be a pivotal first step towards the regeneration of nerve cells following spinal cord injury, using the body's own stem cells.



    This seminal study, published in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, identifies key elements in the body's reaction to spinal injury, critical information that could lead to novel therapies for repairing previously irreversible nerve damage in the injured spinal cord.

    Very little is known about why, unlike a wound to the skin for example, the adult nervous system is unable to repair itself following spinal injury. This is in contrast to the developing brain and non-mammals which can repair and regenerate after severe injuries. One clue from these systems has been the role of stem cells and their potential to develop into different cell types.
    "Because of their regenerative role, it is crucial to understand the movements of stem cells following brain or spinal cord injury," says Dr. Philip Horner, co-lead investigator and neuroscientist at the University of Washington. "We know that stem cells are present within the spinal cord, but it was not known why they could not function to repair the damage. Surprisingly, we discovered that they actually migrate away from the lesion and the question became why - what signal is telling the stem cells to move."
    The researchers then tested numerous proteins and identified netrin-1 as the key molecule responsible for this migratory pattern of stem cells following injury. In the developing nervous system, netrin-1 acts as a repulsive or attractive signal, guiding nerve cells to their proper targets. In the adult spinal cord, the researchers found that netrin-1 specifically repels stem cells away from the injury site, thereby preventing stem cells from replenishing nerve cells.
    "When we block netrin-1 function, the adult stem cells remain at the injury site," says Dr. Tim Kennedy, co-lead investigator and neuroscientist at the Montreal Neurological Institute of McGill University. "This is a critical first step towards understanding the molecular events needed to repair the injured spinal cord and provides us with new targets for potential therapies."
    This study was funded by the Craig H Nielsen Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.


    MAKE SURE YOU SUBMIT A YOUTUBE VIDEO FOR THE PRESIDENTAL DEBATE HEY EVERYBODY I HAD DID A VIDEO FOR THE YOUTUBE DEBATE FOR STEM CELLS THATS COMMING UP SOON http://www.youtube.com/republicandebate I SAY LETS FLOOD IT WITH OUR QUESTIONS....WE GOTTA FIGHT LETS SHOW THE WORLD WHAT WE GO THREW..............
    Last edited by MONEYMAKER7444; 11-17-2007 at 01:35 AM.

  2. #2
    Interesting! I'd like some positive netrin-1 for xmas.

  3. #3
    Senior Member Quadcessible's Avatar
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    Dr. Young?

    After reading this article it occurred to me the possible reason for the stem cells to migrate away, is that once the spinal cord is developed it no longer requires these signals to be present because the spinal cord is complete and further signals could possibly cross circuit or continue to grow possibly causing other problems. In other words it’s present for spinal cord development not repair. If used to repair, which sounds good, the signals need to start and then stop once connections are properly made. You wouldn’t want the repair process to grow out of control which could lead to unknown problems. So the desired result would be to turn on the repair circuit and then ensure it stops once the nerve connections are complete.
    Dr. Young, in my years of reading SCI articles I seem to remember something that the axons emit an electrical signal in which they remember where to connect to each other, could you elaborate if I’m correct?

  4. #4
    Super interesting.
    I wonder where the stem cells go. Do they migrate to healthy tissue? Do they leave to avoid the scavangers that are sent to clean up the mess?
    Life isn't about getting thru the storm but learning to dance in the rain.

  5. #5
    Quote Originally Posted by Lindox
    Super interesting.
    I wonder where the stem cells go. Do they migrate to healthy tissue? Do they leave to avoid the scavangers that are sent to clean up the mess?
    This is a long article and I have not read it in detail yet but the abstract suggests that netrin-1 is instrumental in the developing spinal cord in guiding oligodendrocyte precursor cells away from the ventral regions of the spinal cord towards the white-matter:

    Successful CNS myelination is dependent on the correct localization of oligodendrocytes and their interactions with adjacent axons. In the spinal cord, oligodendrocyte precursors originate at the ventral midline and subsequently migrate to the white matter where they mature. In vitro studies suggest this dispersal is mediated by the guidance molecule netrin-1. Here, we show that in the spinal cord of netrin-1 mutant mice, oligodendrocyte precursors failed to disperse from the ventral midline as a consequence of a lack of polarization and directional migration. The lack of netrin-1 also resulted in an overall reduction of oligodendrocyte lineage cells that was independent of the failure of initial dispersal. Oligodendrocyte precursors injected into presumptive white matter underwent extensive radial migration and expansion in wild-type but not netrin-1 mutant hosts. These data indicate that netrin-1 is crucial for both the initial dispersal of spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursors and their subsequent development in the presumptive white matter.
    http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/26/7/1913
    These data suggest that netrin-1 is critical for both OPC dispersal from the ventral ventricular zone and for providing an intact developing white matter environment that supports the generation of the appropriate numbers of oligodendrocytes.
    Netrin-1 is obviously instrumental in organising precursor cells into the correct areas of the developing spinal cord. Any knowledge about how rhe spinal cord develops during its initial generative phase has got to be useful in regenerative medicine.

  6. #6

    Scientists come closer to repairing injured spinal cord using stem cells

    please move this article with the other one, they are talking about the same thing. Thank you.


    Scientists come closer to repairing injured spinal cord using stem cells

    Posted on 13 Nov 2007 by HimTimes


    Washington, Nov 13 : A new study has identified key elements that may make the regeneration of nerve cells using the body's own stem cells following spinal cord injury a possibility.

    The seminal study, co-lead by Dr. Philip Horner, neuroscientist at the University of Washington, Dr. Tim Kennedy, neuroscientist at the Montreal Neurological Institute of McGill University, might help in providing novel therapies for repairing previously irreversible nerve damage in the injured spinal cord.

    In the study, the researchers tested numerous proteins and identified netrin-1 as the key molecule responsible for the migratory pattern of stem cells following injury.

    "Because of their regenerative role, it is crucial to understand the movements of stem cells following brain or spinal cord injury," Horner said.



    more:
    http://www.himtimes.com/health/healt..._from=&ucat=9&
    Last edited by manouli; 11-13-2007 at 09:08 PM.

  7. #7
    Senior Member FasterNow's Avatar
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    Not knowing much I would speculate that netrin 1 is produced by glial cells which proliferate at areas of spinal cord injury as well as surrounding the spinal cord. Glial cells surrounding the spinal cord producing netrin 1 may keep the stem cells in the central area of cord and assist in guiding lengthwise movement/growth. If the glial cells secrete the netrin 1, areas of lesion will naturally repel stem cells.
    Injured 7-22-06, T-11 T-12 complete. [Holds up cardboard sign] "Will work for returns."
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  8. #8
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    No offense to anyone blah/blah/blah... at least once a month I read the same headline. Must be those lucky rats. Want to see the headline scientist repaired chronic spinal cord injuries. Quad walks after many many years in a wheelchair. When are we going to hear this???
    keiffer66

  9. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by Keith
    Quad walks after many many years in a wheelchair. When are we going to hear this???

    You'll never hear about any sci walking after many years in a chair.

    You'll hear about legit recovery some day, but not walking.

  10. #10

    walking

    What ever happened to positive mental attitude?

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