• Patzer L, Kentouche K, Ringelmann F and Misselwitz J (2003). Renal function following hematological stem cell transplantation in childhood. Pediatr Nephrol Summary: Renal function greatly influences mortality rates in the early phase following hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in childhood, as well as the quality of life in long-term survivors. Nevertheless, the number of studies in pediatric populations is limited and some important aspects of kidney function after HSCT have only been elucidated in adults. The incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) immediately after HSCT in pediatric patients is between 25% and 50%, with 5%-10% of children requiring renal replacement therapy. Doubling of serum creatinine is associated with a twofold increase in mortality. However, the need for dialysis leads to a further increase in mortality rates to 80%-90%. Specific renal syndromes appear at different times following HSCT, revealing a similar pattern in children and adult patients. In both children and adults, impaired renal function associated with liver impairment (hepatorenal syndrome) is the most important cause for ARF. Therapeutic approaches have not been able to reduce the frequency or to improve outcome so far. In adults surviving long term, bone marrow transplant (BMT) nephropathy is the most frequent renal complication, although a considerable variation in incidence (up to 70%) has been published, partly due to various definitions and manifestations. Little is known about the long-term outcome of renal function in patients treated with HSCT in childhood. However, chronic renal failure has been reported in 0%-28%, but no end-stage renal failure has been published so far. Tubular function following HSCT is rarely investigated, although its impact on long-term survivors of BMT in childhood might be of some importance, especially for growth and bone metabolism. Department of Pediatrics, Friedrich Schiller University, Kochstrasse 2, 07743 Jena, Germany.