• Barth H, Klein K, Bortlein A, Guseo A, Berg PA, Wietholter H and Klein R (2002). Analysis of immunoregulatory T-helper cell subsets in patients with multiple sclerosis: relapsing-progressive course correlates with enhanced T(H1), relapsing-remitting course with enhanced T(H0) reactivity. J Neuroimmunol 133:175-83. Summary: In this study, we analysed the recall antigen-induced cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 31 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with a relapsing-remitting (rr) and a relapsing-progressive (rp) course and from 40 healthy controls. Cells were stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD; type 1 response) and tetanus toxoid (TT; type 2 response). Cytokines were determined in the supernatants by ELISA. One of the interesting findings was that healthy controls showed more frequently an IL-5 production after incubation with TT than MS-patients (68% vs.37%; p<0.01), while the type 1 reactivity was only slightly enhanced in MS patients as compared to the controls. However, within the MS patients, there was a significant difference in the incidence of the type 1 reactivity comparing patients with an rp and an rr course [60% vs. 24%; p<0.05). Furthermore, the frequency of a type 0 profile [simultaneous PPD-induced IFN-gamma and TT-induced IL-5 production) was fourfold higher in rr than in the rp patients [43% vs. 10%, p<0.05).In vitro analysis of cytokine profiles in MS could therefore be an interesting approach to evaluate the prognosis of MS [rr vs. rp) already at the beginning of the disease. Thus, it seems that the presence of a type 0 profile is a valid indicator for a favorable course, while a type 1 profile is rather associated with rp MS. Medizinische Klinik, Innere Medizin II, Universitat Tubingen, Otfried-Muller-Str. 10, 72076, Tubingen, Germany