• Wang HY, Matsui M, Araya S, Onai N, Matsushima K and Saida T (2002). Chemokine receptors associated with immunity within and outside the central nervous system in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 133:184-92. Summary: Thirty-four patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were studied to clarify the differences in chemokine receptor usage by blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytes relevant to the pathogenesis of MS. A total of 45 examinations (33 active and 12 inactive stages) revealed that circulating CD4(+)CXCR3(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells were increased in active MS patients and correlated with the number of gadolinium-enhanced lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) images. In contrast, CSF samples obtained during active stages were characterized by a decrease in the percentage of CD8(+)CXCR3(+) T cells, which was inversely correlated with CSF cell count and intra-blood-brain barrier (BBB) IgG production. Department of Neurology and Clinical Research Center, Center for Neurological Diseases, Utano National Hospital, Kyoto 616-8255, Ukyo, Japan