Bonilla S, Alarcon P, Villaverde R, Aparicio P, Silva A and Martinez S (2002). Haematopoietic progenitor cells from adult bone marrow differentiate into cells that express oligodendroglial antigens in the neonatal mouse brain. Eur J Neurosci. 15 (3): 575-82. Summary: Stem cells are self-renewable, pluripotent cells that, in adult life, proliferate by a characteristic asymmetric division in which one daughter cell is committed to differentiation whereas the other remains a stem cell. These cells are also characterized by their ability to differentiate into various cell types under heterotopic environmental influences. In the present study, we have explored the potential of adult haematopoietic bone marrow cells to differentiate into cells of oligodendroglial lineage under physiological, active myelinating conditions. We present evidence of generation of cells expressing oligodendroglial specific markers from a bone marrow subpopulation enriched on adult haematopoietic progenitor cells (CD117+) in vivo after intracerebral transplantation into the neonatal mouse brain. Our results suggest that adult bone marrow cells have the capacity to undergo differentiation from haematopoietic to oligodendroglial cells and add support the validity of bone marrow transplants as an alternative treatment for demyelinating diseases of the CNS including Multiple Sclerosis. Instituto de Neurociencias, UMH-CSIC, Campus San Juan, Alicante, Spain.