• Oyama Y, Cohen B, Traynor A, Brush M, Rodriguez J and Burt RK (2002). Engraftment syndrome: a common cause for rash and fever following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 29 (1): 81-5. Summary: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated as a therapy for patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) at risk of debilitating neurological impairment. While preliminary results from a few studies have been reported, little is known about toxicities or outcome of HSCT for MS. We report a relatively frequent triad of non-infectious fever, rash and fatigue or lassitude that may also be associated with pruritis, pulmonary symptoms, and eosinophilia and frequently occurs around engraftment. This syndrome occurred in 26% of our series of patients (5/19) undergoing HSCT for multiple sclerosis. The engraftment syndrome is usually self-limited but may require intervention with systemic corticosteroids. Northwestern University School of Medicine, Division of Immune Therapy and Autoimmune Disease, Chicago, IL, USA.