• Sobel RA (2001). The extracellular matrix in multiple sclerosis: an update. Braz J Med Biol Res. 34 (5): 603-9. Summary: Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules play important roles in the pathobiology of the major human central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory/demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This mini- review highlights some recent work on CNS endothelial cell interactions with vascular basement membrane ECM as part of the cellular immune response, and roles for white matter ECM molecules in demyelination and remyelination in MS lesions. Recent basic and clinical investigations of MS emphasize axonal injury, not only in chronic MS plaques, but also in acute lesions; progressive axonal degeneration in normal-appearing white matter also may contribute to brain and spinal cord atrophy in MS patients. Remodeling of the interstitial white matter ECM molecules that affect axon regeneration, however, is incompletely characterized. Our ongoing immunohistochemical studies demonstrate enhanced ECM versican, a neurite and axon growth-inhibiting white matter ECM proteoglycan, and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans at the edges of inflammatory MS lesions. This suggests that enhanced proteoglycan deposition in the ECM and axonal growth inhibition may occur early and are involved in expansion of active lesions. Decreased ECM proteoglycans and their phagocytosis by macrophages along with myelin in plaque centers imply that there is "injury" to the ECM itself. These results indicate that white matter ECM proteoglycan alterations are integral to MS pathology at all disease stages and that they contribute to a CNS ECM that is inhospitable to axon regrowth/regeneration. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-po...r&uid=11323746
http://www.scielo.br/cgi-bin/fbpe/fb...X2001000500007
http://www.scielo.br/cgi-bin/fbpe/fb...2001000500007> Pathology and Laboratory Services, Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto and Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. raysobel@stanford.edu