• Kotter MR, Setzu A, Sim FJ, Van Rooijen N and Franklin RJ (2001). Macrophage depletion impairs oligodendrocyte remyelination following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Glia. 35 (3): 204-12. Summary: An association between macrophages and remyelination efficiency has been observed in a variety of different models of CNS demyelination. In order to test whether this association is causal or coincidental, we have examined the effects of macrophage depletion on the rate of remyelination of lysolecithin-induced demyelination in the spinal cord of young adult female rats. Macrophage depletion was achieved by reducing the monocyte contribution to the macrophages within the lesion using the clodronate-liposome technique. This technique not only resulted in a decrease in Ox-42-positive cells in the spleen of treated animals but also in the levels of macrophage scavenger receptor type B mRNA expression within the demyelinating lesion. In animals treated with clodronate-liposomes throughout the remyelination process, there was a significant decrease in the extent of oligodendrocyte remyelination at 3 weeks after lesion induction, but no effect on Schwann cell remyelination. If macrophage depletion was delayed until the second half of the remyelination phase, then there was no effect on the repair outcome, implying that macrophages are required for the early stages of CNS remyelination. The results of this study indicate that the macrophage response is an important component of successful CNS remyelination and that approaches to the treatment of demyelinating disease based on inhibition of the inflammatory response may also impair regenerative events that follow demyelination. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?db=m&form=6&dopt=r&uid=11494411> Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.