• Linsenmeyer TA and Ottenweller J (2003). Bladder stones following SCI in the Sprague-Dawley rat. J Spinal Cord Med 26:65-8. Summary: OBJECTIVE: To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model for the study of bladder stones and compare this model with a non-SCI animal model. METHODS: Small pieces of catheters were implanted into the bladders of Sprague-Dawley rats as a nidus for bladder stone formation. Three weeks later, the rats underwent an SCI surgery (SCI transection or sham SCI). Control rats had SCI surgery, but no catheters were implanted into their bladders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bladder stone number, weight, and composition were determined in two groups of SCI and sham SCI animals: Group A (recent spinal shock: 2 weeks post-SCI/sham SCI surgery) and Group B (out of spinal shock: 3 weeks to 3 months post-SCI/sham SCI surgery). A chi2 test was used to compare the incidence of bladder stones in SCI vs sham SCI animals. A Student t test was used to compare the weight of bladder stones in the 2 groups. RESULTS: Group A (recent spinal shock): Of the 20 SCI rats, 8 (40%) had stones. None of the sham SCI rats with implanted catheters (n = 5) had stones (0%). Group B (out of spinal shock): All 6 of the SCI rats with implanted catheters had stones (100%). Of the 10 sham SCI animals with implanted catheters, 3 (30%) had stones. Stones were more common in the SCI rats than in the sham SCI rats (chi2(1) = 4.9, P < 0.05). The mean weight of the bladder stones in SCI rats [42.2 +/- 16.3 mg) was greater than that in sham SCI rats [5.4 +/- 1.5 mg) [P < 0.01). Group C [controls: SCI surgery, but no catheter implanted): At 3 weeks post-SCI, control rats had no stones [n = 7); control rats at 3 months post-SCI also had no stones [n = 9). Stone composition in the 3 sham SCI animals was calcium apatite [90%) and calcium oxylate [10%). In the 14 SCI rats, 10 had struvite stones [100%), 1 had struvite [70%) and carbonate apatite [30%) stones, 1 had brushite [100)% stones, and 2 had carbonate apatite [> 90%) stones. CONCLUSION: Bladder stones occurred earlier and more frequently and attained a larger size in SCI rats with catheters compared with sham SCI rats with catheters. There were no stones in SCI rats without catheter implants, even at 3-month follow-up. The bladder stone composition in SCI rats was similar to that in humans with SCI. The Sprague-Dawley rat model appears to be an excellent animal model for the study of bladder stones following SCI. Department of Urology, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, West Orange, New Jersey 07052, USA. tlinsenmeyer@kessler-rehab.com