Hulsebosch CE (2002). Recent advances in pathophysiology and treatment of spinal cord injury. Adv Physiol Educ 26:238-55. Thirty years ago, patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their families were told "nothing can be done" to improve function. Since the SCI patient population is reaching normal life expectancy through better health care, it has become an obviously worthwhile enterprise to devote considerable research effort to SCI. Targets for intervention in SCI toward improved function have been identified using basic research approaches and can be simplified into a list: 1) reduction of edema and free-radical production, 2) rescue of neural tissue at risk of dying in secondary processes such as abnormally high extracellular glutamate concentrations, 3) control of inflammation, 4) rescue of neuronal/glial populations at risk of continued apoptosis, 5) repair of demyelination and conduction deficits, 6) promotion of neurite growth through improved extracellular environment, 7) cell replacement therapies, 8) efforts to bridge the gap with transplantation approaches, 9) efforts to retrain and relearn motor tasks, 10) restoration of lost function by electrical stimulation, and 11) relief of chronic pain syndromes. Currently, over 70 clinical trials are in progress worldwide. Consequently, in this millennium, unlike in the last, no SCI patient will have to hear "nothing can be done."Thirty years ago, patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their families were told "nothing can be done" to improve function. Since the SCI patient population is reaching normal life expectancy through better health care, it has become an obviously worthwhile enterprise to devote considerable research effort to SCI. Targets for intervention in SCI toward improved function have been identified using basic research approaches and can be simplified into a list: 1) reduction of edema and free-radical production, 2) rescue of neural tissue at risk of dying in secondary processes such as abnormally high extracellular glutamate concentrations, 3) control of inflammation, 4) rescue of neuronal/glial populations at risk of continued apoptosis, 5) repair of demyelination and conduction deficits, 6) promotion of neurite growth through improved extracellular environment, 7) cell replacement therapies, 8) efforts to bridge the gap with transplantation approaches, 9) efforts to retrain and relearn motor tasks, 10) restoration of lost function by electrical stimulation, and 11) relief of chronic pain syndromes. Currently, over 70 clinical trials are in progress worldwide. Consequently, in this millennium, unlike in the last, no SCI patient will have to hear "nothing can be done."