Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 27;95:109674.

Recent advances of induced pluripotent stem cells application in neurodegenerative diseases.

Amin N1, Tan X2, Ren Q2, Zhu N3, Botchway BOA2, Hu Z4, Fang M5.

Stem cell is defined by its ability to self-renewal and generates differentiated functional cell types, which are derived from the embryo and various sources of postnatal animal. These cells can be divided according to their potential development into totipotent, unipotent, multipotent andpluripotent. Pluripotent is considered as the most important type due to its advantageous capability to create different cell types of the body in a similar behavior as embryonic stem cell. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are adult cells that maintain the characteristics of embryonic stem cells because it can be genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state via express genes and transcription factors. Such cells provide an efficient pathway to explorehuman diseases and their corresponding therapy, particularly, neurodevelopmental disorders. Consequently, iPSCs can be investigated to check the specific mutations of neurodegenerative disease due to their unique ability to differentiate into neural cell types and/or neural organoids. The current review addresses the different neurodegenerative diseases model by using iPSCs approach such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD), Parkinson diseases (PD),multiplesclerosis(MS) and psychiatric disorders. We also highlight the importance of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases.