Rev Neurosci. 2019 Jun 13.

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of traumatic brain injury: progress and prospects.

Das M1,2, Mayilsamy K1,2, Mohapatra SS1,3, Mohapatra S1,2.

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of injury-related mortality and morbidity in the USA and around the world. The survivors may suffer from cognitive and memory deficits, vision and hearing loss, movement disorders, and different psychological problems. The primary insult causes neuronal damage and activates astrocytes and microglia which evokes immune responses causing further damage to the brain. Clinical trials of drugs to recover the neuronal loss are not very successful. Regenerative approaches for TBI using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem promising. Results of preclinical research have shown that transplantation of MSCs reduced secondary neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, promoted neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and improved functional outcome in the experimental animals. The functional improvement is not necessarily related to cell engraftment; rather, immunomodulation by molecular factors secreted by MSCs is responsible for the beneficial effects of this therapy. However, MSC therapy has a few drawbacks including tumor formation, which can be avoided by the use of MSC-derived exosomes. This review has focused on the research works published in the field of regenerative therapy using MSCs after TBI and its future direction.

exosomes; mesenchymal stem cell (MSC); regenerative medicine; traumatic brain injury (TBI)