Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2018 Oct 22;20(12):53.

Cognitive Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis: Recent Advances in Treatment and Neurorehabilitation.

Sokolov AA1,2,3, Grivaz P1, Bove R4,5.

This article highlights recent progress in research on treatment and neurorehabilitation of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) including pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and neuropsychological rehabilitation, both in conventional and technology-assisted settings.

The most consistent evidence in terms of improvement or preservation of circumscribed cognitive scores in MS patients comes from moderately sampled randomized clinical trials on multimodal approaches that combine conventional or computerized neuropsychological training with psychoeducation or cognitive behavioral therapy. Disease-modifying treatments also appear to have beneficial effects in preventing or attenuating cognitive decline, whereas there is little evidence for agents such as donepezil or stimulants. Finally, physical exercise may yield some cognitive improvement in MS patients. Despite substantial and often promising research efforts, there is a lack of validated and widely accepted clinical procedures for cognitive neurorehabilitation in MS. Development of such approaches will require collaborative efforts towards the design of interventions that are fundamentally inspired by cognitive neuroscience, potentially guided by neuroimaging, and composed of conventional neuropsychological training and cognitive behavioral therapy as well as physical exercise and therapeutic video games. Subsequently, large-scale validation will be needed with meaningful outcome measures reflecting transfer to everyday cognitive function and maintenance of training effects.