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Thread: Glial scars

  1. #11
    Much depends on chemical makeup. Some dissolve extremely fast (in fact too fast for axons to get across it and grow) and then some implants are permanent and won't dissolve at all. They become too stiff and brittle and won't support soft delicate axonal growth. Depending on what you're designing, some need a very soft application and others want the scaffolding to be more stiff. The actual chemical makeup of scaffolds can be worlds apart. Yes, there is a sugar derived coating within a scaffold that can keep Chondroitinase at a viable temperature (thermostabilized Ch'ase) for sustained release for up to 6 weeks. It was made at Georgia Tech by Ravi Bellamkonda and Ryan Gilbert Lab of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. http://faculty.rpi.edu/node/1038 http://www.ravi.gatech.edu/ and also http://ravi.gatech.edu/publications


    There's incredible diverse designs within them also. To be really honest, nobody has the perfect combination nailed down yet. If they did, it would be nobel prize worthy. There's labs working through series of tests to find the best possible stem cell candidates to potentially repair the CNS, there's multiple labs working on inhibiting proteoglycans and even labs working on formulating the best growth cocktails, gene therapies and natural peptides that may help too. It's just my opinion, but so far, we don't have the best solutions all figured out and put into an exact therapy that will specifically help with chronic applications. There's quite a few labs that are now working with more than one lone mechanism at a time.
    Last edited by GRAMMY; 10-12-2014 at 01:28 PM.

  2. #12
    Quote Originally Posted by Jim View Post
    Yes Void, this forum is absolutely about education.

    I wrote the above because James asked a question and I offered my opinion. There is concrete evidence from independent labs that many, many axons grow across the "glial scar." He is newly injured and has been led to believe the injury site needs to be removed because it prevents regeneration. How did he come to believe this? Are there research studies that show the injury site prevents regeneration? It is scarey to me that he thinks a piece of his cord needs to be cut out for him to recover.
    He never mentioned any cutting.
    In the introduction Silver discuss the topic: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334458/
    If it's your opinion say it and why, and don't act like it's a indisputable fact. To say that the other opinion is foolish when so many researchers support it is not a very desirable scientific discussion.
    Debating on CareCure is like participating in the special-olympics. You may win, but you're still disabled.

  3. #13
    Quote Originally Posted by void View Post
    He never mentioned any cutting.
    In the introduction Silver discuss the topic: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334458/
    If it's your opinion say it and why, and don't act like it's a indisputable fact. To say that the other opinion is foolish when so many researchers support it is not a very desirable scientific discussion.
    Void, the following is a recent review article that I wrote about spinal cord regeneration. It is very detailed and cites many researchers in the field.

    By the way, there is an error in the article that I did not catch during proof-reading. In the abstract, where I say "Blockade of Nogo, CSPG, and their receptors indeed can stop axon growth in vitro..." and I really meant "Blockade of Nogo, CSPG, and their receptor indeed can stimulate axonal growth in vitro...".

    Wise.
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    Last edited by Wise Young; 10-12-2014 at 10:53 AM.

  4. #14
    Quote Originally Posted by Jim View Post
    Yes Void, this forum is absolutely about education.

    I wrote the above because James asked a question and I offered my opinion. There is concrete evidence from independent labs that many, many axons grow across the "glial scar." He is newly injured and has been led to believe the injury site needs to be removed because it prevents regeneration. How did he come to believe this? Are there research studies that show the injury site prevents regeneration? It is scarey to me that he thinks a piece of his cord needs to be cut out for him to recover.
    Is there a difference in the number of axons which grow across a glial scar vs the number which would grow across a significantly smaller scar or would grow with no scar at all?

  5. #15
    Do you think that the damaged cellular structure remaining after injury might actually act as a scaffold of sorts? I have wondered that since the proposals of artificial structural implants began to be talked about. There are some articles and opinions that implanted stem cells migrate out of unrestrained space. So many theories seem to exist that it is difficult to sort out.

    Quote Originally Posted by scisucks View Post
    Is there a difference in the number of axons which grow across a glial scar vs the number which would grow across a significantly smaller scar or would grow with no scar at all?

  6. #16
    scisucks, good question. c473s, very interesting idea.

    I believe Hans Kierstead has worked on ways of reverse-aging astrocytes in the gliosis at the site of the injury to make them less restrictive - does anyone have any more information on that? It may help answer both questions.

  7. #17
    https://spinalcordresearchandadvocac...g-2-walk-2012/

    I found what I was talking about. In the video, he states briefly that the astrocytes in the gliosis at the injury are not all bad, but the inhibitory things they do outweigh any regenertive effects they have. Victor Arvanian alluded to this in his presentation at W2W 2013, as well as in a few papers he's published.

  8. #18
    Quote Originally Posted by scisucks View Post
    Is there a difference in the number of axons which grow across a glial scar vs the number which would grow across a significantly smaller scar or would grow with no scar at all?
    I haven't been following things that closely in the last year, and I forget everything that I've read in the past. So please correct me if I?m wrong. Your question is tough to answer. Scientists have NEVER been able to get regeneration of axons at a chronic time point (months - years). The latest regeneration that I have heard of was at 2 weeks (sub-acute), using neural stem cells. Those were also stem cell axons, not our spinal cord axons.

    It's been several years, and there have been "mildly successful" regeneration in studies like PTEN & Neural Stem Cells. However, they've all been acute or sub-acute, and that leads me to believe it can't be done in a real chronic injury. Which then leads me to believe that the chronic scar is a huge barrier to axon regeneration (not the only barrier), especially host axons. Many (most?) prominent SCI researchers also say chronic scar is an issue.

  9. #19
    Quote Originally Posted by scisucks View Post
    Is there a difference in the number of axons which grow across a glial scar vs the number which would grow across a significantly smaller scar or would grow with no scar at all?
    If you ask this question to researchers you will get very different answers because no one can say for sure yet what the scar is made of. Relatively few researchers seem to know a lot about the scar because they believe is a problem, so they have studied it, but probably much more about the scar needs to be known to figure out for sure what is the best way to deal with it.
    Sadly most researchers look just at acute SCI when the scar does not exist yet, so they don't care about how to deal with it.

    I wonder why researches don't just take scar tissue and study it down to a molecular level untill we know all about it to end the debate, probably isn't that simple, but I don't think it's impossible.

    Paolo
    In God we trust; all others bring data. - Edwards Deming

  10. #20
    Quote Originally Posted by paolocipolla View Post
    If you ask this question to researchers you will get very different answers because no one can say for sure yet what the scar is made of. Relatively few researchers seem to know a lot about the scar because they believe is a problem. . . Paolo
    You are confused, so there must be a language barrier. Italian scientists should know what is in gliosis (aka) glial scar. It's been funded, studied and published for decades throughout the world in the central nervous system including other multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

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