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Thread: Las Vegas man's research may lead to aging reversal/Scientists Briefly Reverse Brain-Cell Aging/Brain Chemical May Thwart Ravages of Aging: Study

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    Senior Member Max's Avatar
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    Las Vegas man's research may lead to aging reversal/Scientists Briefly Reverse Brain-Cell Aging/Brain Chemical May Thwart Ravages of Aging: Study

    Las Vegas man's research may lead to aging reversal
    http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/st...515028071.html

    Tranquilizers seen as beneficial
    By Mary Manning
    <manning@lasvegassun.com>
    LAS VEGAS SUN

    The use of tranquilizers in aging monkeys suggests that the drugs may sharpen the sight, hearing and cognitive skills in aging people, according to a paper published by a Las Vegas resident today in the journal Science.

    Audie Leventhal, professor of neurobiology and anatomy at the University of Utah, has studied the visual cortex and normal aging in the brain for 25 years.

    His research into brain chemistry in monkeys indicates that supplying a neurotransmitter named GABA or a similar chemical named muscimol to deteriorating nerve cells in the visual cortez may reverse aging.

    The research suggests that by boosting the brain's chemicals, doctors may someday help elderly people reverse brain cell aging that can cause declines in vision, hearing, memory and other cognitive and motor skills.

    While much modern medical research aims at regenerating injured or lost abilities, such as repairing spinal cord cells damaged by disease or injury, Leventhal said he wants to protect existing brain cells as we age.

    "We have to make the same brain cells last a long time," Leventhal said from his Summerlin home.

    Tranquilizers from the benzodiazepines group -- including brands such as Valium, Xanax, Librium and Ativan -- increase GABA levels in the brain, Leventhal said.

    "So the findings raise the question of whether sedatives or perhaps other medications might help counter brain-related declines in the vision of elderly people," he said.

    Scientists from the University of Utah and from China report that they were able to reverse age-related deterioration of nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex for several minutes when researchers administered GABA or a similar chemical. Leventhal has been an honorary professor of biology at the University of Science and Technology of China since 1990.

    "The fact that we can fix it is really good news," Leventhal said.

    Because brain levels of GABA also play a role in several higher brain functions, such as interpreting what we see and hear, memory formation and movement control, future research should investigate whether tranquilizers or other GABA-enhancing chemicals might help reverse other declining abilities caused by the brain's deterioration as people grow older, he said.

    In normal aging, Leventhal said, "Grandpa is able to see you at age 90 when you walk into the room, but he can't recognize you."

    In animals such as frogs, with no visual cortex, seeing seems to be almost a reflexive reaction. "A frog will try to eat a fly, but he will also shoot at a moving pebble," he said. "The frog doesn't know the difference."

    The way GABA or other tranquilizers operate in the brain seems amazing: slow grandpa's brain and he will move and think better.

    Without the help, an older brain may be overloaded with background noise, similar to a driver trying to cross the Las Vegas Strip on Flamingo Road with the traffic signals out. "Everything comes to a dead stop," Leventhal said.

    The new study builds on research Leventhal published in 2000 in the journal Nature Neuroscience. The earlier study found as vision declines in elderly monkeys, it is not necessarily from diseases of the eye or the optic nerve. Instead, age caused nerve cells to deteriorate in the brain's visual cortex.

    Leventhal and his Chinese colleagues measured electrical activity in 242 visual cortex nerve cells in six young monkeys, ages 7 to 9 years old, comparable to 21- to 27-year-old humans. Then they measured activity in another 257 nerve cells in seven older monkeys, 26 to 32 years in age, equal to 78 to 96 in humans.

    "It's premature to run out and take benzodiazepines," Leventhal said. When younger monkeys were fed GABA, the visual cortex cells immediately slowed. "It just put them to sleep."

    The older Rhesus monkeys and long-tailed macaques improved with the GABA or muscimol, like a traffic light regulating the flow of nerve impulses.

    Leventhal, a research professor who does not have teaching responsibilities, said he moved to Las Vegas from Salt Lake City in the last year after leaving the Las Vegas Strip during a visit and seeing Red Rock Canyon.

    "I like to be able to walk across the golf course and go hiking in Red Rock," he said.



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    [This message was edited by Max on 05-03-03 at 01:44 PM.]

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    Scientists Briefly Reverse Brain-Cell Aging

    Scientists Briefly Reverse Brain-Cell Aging
    Library: MED
    Keywords: AGING BRAIN NERVE CELLS VISION VISUAL CORTEX UTAH
    Description: New research suggests that by boosting levels of a brain chemical to squelch excess transmission of nerve signals, doctors someday may be able to help elderly people by reversing brain-cell aging that can cause declines in vision, hearing, memory and other skills. (Science Magazine, 2-May-2003)



    UNIVERSITY OF UTAH HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER MEDIA RELEASE

    Embargoed by the journal Science for release
    at noon MDT Thurs. May 1, 2003

    Contacts:
    -- Audie Leventhal, professor of neurobiology and anatomy - cellular (801) 598-4048, lab (801) 581-6097, audie.leventhal@m.cc.utah.edu or aglcorp@msn.com
    -- Lee Siegel, science news specialist, University of Utah Public Relations - (801) 581-8993, cellular (801) 244-5399, leesiegel@ucomm.utah.edu

    SCIENTISTS BRIEFLY REVERSE BRAIN-CELL AGING
    Drugs Temporarily Make Old Visual Brain Cells Act Young in Animal Tests

    New research suggests that by boosting levels of a brain chemical to squelch excess transmission of nerve signals, doctors someday may be able to help elderly people by reversing brain-cell aging that can cause declines in vision, hearing, memory and other cognitive and motor skills.

    In a study of monkeys in the May 2 issue of the journal Science, scientists from the University of Utah and from China report they were able to reverse age-related deterioration of nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex for several minutes when the researchers administered a neurotransmitter named GABA or a similar chemical named muscimol.

    "The ramifications of this are to correct brain degradation in the elderly. That is significant to every human being," says Audie Leventhal, chief author of the study and a professor of neurobiology and anatomy at the University of Utah School of Medicine.

    Tranquilizers known as benzodiazepines - a group that includes brands such as Valium, Xanax, Librium and Ativan - increase GABA levels in the brain. So the findings raise the question of whether sedatives or perhaps other medications might help counter brain-related declines in vision in elderly people.

    Because brain levels of GABA also plays a role in several "higher" brain functions - such as interpreting what we see and hear, memory formation and the control of movement - future research also should investigate whether tranquilizers or other GABA-enhancing medicines might help reverse a variety of declining abilities caused by brain deterioration in the elderly, Leventhal says.

    "I want to get people [pharmaceutical company researchers] interested in the possibility that some of these drugs administered in relatively low doses may improve cognitive functions in old people without having significant side effects," says Leventhal.

    That hypothesis may seem surprising because "it's counterintuitive that you're going to make grandpa move faster and see better by slowing down his brain," Leventhal says, adding that for now "it is premature to run out and take benzodiazepines" based on the theory.

    Nevertheless, he believes GABA-like drugs will be more likely to reverse cognitive declines like memory loss than to reverse visual declines, because most vision problems in the elderly result from eyes diseases rather than from aging of cells in the brain's visual cortex.

    The University of Utah and Leventhal are seeking a patent on the use of GABA and GABA-like drugs to improve brain function in the elderly.

    Leventhal conducted the study with Yongchang Wang, a research assistant professor of neurobiology and anatomy at the University of Utah; Mingliang Pu, a former research associate at Utah; Yifeng Zhou, a neurobiologist who was trained in Leventhal's lab and now works at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei; and Yuanye Ma, a neurobiologist at the Kunming Institute of Zoology in Kunming, China. Leventhal is an honorary professor of biology at the University of Science and Technology of China.

    Background

    Aging in humans is known to reduce visual acuity, depth perception and the abilities to distinguish colors, contrasts and shapes.

    The new study builds upon research Leventhal published in 2000 in the journal Nature Neuroscience. That study found that when vision declines in elderly monkeys, it is not necessarily because of diseases of the eyes or optic nerves, but because of age-related degeneration in nerve cells within the brain's visual cortex.

    In that study, Leventhal measured electrical activity of individual nerve cells in the brain as young and old monkeys watched a computer screen that alternately displayed vertical bars, horizontal bars and angled bars that moved at different speeds and directions.

    In young monkeys, horizontal bars triggered certain nerve cells to fire, vertical bars made other neurons fire and angled bars triggered still others. Yet other neurons fired to help the young monkeys determine directions of moving objects. Such firing of distinct nerve cells helps young monkeys distinguish different orientations and motions in what they see.

    But in older monkeys, various nerve cells fired regardless of whether the bars were vertical, horizontal, angled or moving in various directions. The findings suggested that when elderly drivers have trouble determining directions and speeds of other vehicles, it might be due to degradation of brain cells that help them distinguish shapes and motions. The 2000 study suggested driver's license eyesight tests for elderly people fail to detect brain degeneration that impairs vision.

    The Science study

    The new study in Science was carried out in a similar manner. Leventhal and colleagues measured electrical activity in 242 visual cortex nerve cells in six young monkeys ages 7 to 9 years old - equivalent to 21- to 27-year-old humans. They measured activity in another 257 nerve cells in seven old monkeys 26 to 32 years in age - equal to 78 to 96 in humans. Rhesus monkeys and long-tailed macaques were involved in the study.

    As in the previous study, monkeys in the new experiment watched computer screens displaying bars at various orientations and moving at different speeds and directions. This time, however, Leventhal and colleagues also administered drugs to the animals, including:

    -- GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which is the major "inhibitory neurotransmitter" found throughout the brain. It acts like a traffic light to regulate the flow of nerve impulses and squelch random and excessive nerve cell firing.

    -- Muscimol (pronounced musk-keh-mole), which works like GABA but is more potent and is extracted from poisonous, psychoactive Amanita mushrooms.

    -- Bicuculline (pronounced buy-kook-you-lean), which acts to counter GABA and muscimol, by elevating random nerve impulse activity.

    When GABA and muscimol were used, they did not improve the already good function of nerve cells in young monkeys' brains. But within two minutes, the drugs made old monkeys' visual cortex nerve cells act "young" again. Instead of various cells firing regardless of whether monkeys saw vertical, horizontal or angled bars, some cells fired only when the monkeys saw vertical bars, some fired only when horizontal bars were seen, and so on. This ability to discriminate shapes and motions wore off five to 10 minutes after the drugs were stopped.

    When bicuculline was used on young monkeys, their brain cells temporarily acted "old" by firing indiscriminately in response to the various bar shapes and motions.

    "You make cells young or old depending on what drug you're using," Leventhal says.

    GABA and muscimol had another beneficial effect. As we age, there is more background "noise" - random nerve impulses in the visual cortex - so when an older person sees something, the resulting nerve signals are harder to detect against the background noise. Yet when old monkeys received GABA or muscimol, "it squelched this random background activity," adding to the improved function of the monkey's visual cortex.

    While Leventhal's 2000 study and most of the new one were conducted in Utah, many future studies will be done at China's Kunming Institute of Zoology because it is less expensive and the animals are available in the area's temperate rainforest.

    Traffic lights in the brain

    GABA helps regulate timely and efficient flow of nerve signals by acting like traffic lights, Leventhal says. During a blackout, signals fail and traffic crawls to a standstill. If GABA is reduced, nerve impulses move less efficiently and a person's memory, motor coordination, hearing and vision are impaired, he adds.

    Leventhal says that while much modern medical research aims to regenerate injured or lost body parts - such as repairing spinal cord cells damaged by injury or disease - he wants to get our existing brain cells to keep working well as we age.

    "It would be nice to fix paralysis to have nerve cells grow back, but as far as your brains and your brain cells, you need to have the same ones last forever, because they hold our memories and knowledge so new ones will no longer be you."

    This news release and a downloadable high-resolution photo of young and old monkeys is at:
    http://www.utah.edu/unews/releases/03/may/oldbrain.html

    University of Utah Public Relations
    201 S Presidents Circle, Room 308
    Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-9017
    (801) 581-6773 fax: 585-3350
    www.utah.edu/unews

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    Senior Member Max's Avatar
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    Brain Chemical May Thwart Ravages of Aging: Study

    Brain Chemical May Thwart Ravages of Aging: Study
    May 02, 2003 03:24:25 PM PST, Reuters

    A shot of a brain chemical called GABA essentially turned back the clocks in the brains of older monkeys, whose brain function briefly operated at levels normally seen in monkeys less than half their age.
    The finding may one day help scientists reverse similar age-related deterioration in the brains of people, according to the report published Friday in the journal Science.

    GABA, or gamma-aminobutyric acid, is a messenger chemical that is essential for optimizing how brain cells transmit messages to each other and acts to put a damper on unwanted brain signaling activity, explained the study's lead author Dr. Audie G. Leventhal at the University of Utah School of Medicine in Salt Lake City.

    Although GABA's age-related decline has not been documented in humans, a host of studies in mammals, including other primates, suggests that a similar process is at work in people, explained Leventhal.

    In the current study, Leventhal's team evaluated how a brain region called the visual cortex in old and young monkeys responds to micro-shots of GABA.

    Monkeys between the ages of 26 and 32 -- considered very old for monkeys -- that got GABA directly delivered to their neurons responded to visual patterns, such as flashing vertical and horizontal lines, in much the same way as monkeys aged 7 to 9 years old did, according to Leventhal.

    Without GABA delivery, the monkeys' aged brains had more difficulty firing neurons that specifically gauge various aspects of depth perception, motion and color, explained Leventhal. Instead, older monkeys have more random firings that make it difficult to observe visual nuances.

    In younger monkeys, GABA had no effect since their brains already had optimal GABA functioning.

    "The challenge now is to go and look at a variety of GABA-increasing drugs and see how they influence other areas of the brain" and whether or not they improve brain functions known to decline as people age, such as hearing and memory, said Leventhal.

    Leventhal noted that a class of tranquilizers known as benzodiazepines (including Valium, Xanax and Librium) work by boosting levels of GABA in the brain.

    "It may be that already approved GABA (boosting drugs) have a positive effect on mental decline in the brains of older adults, but nobody has ever looked," he told Reuters Health.

    Nonetheless, the findings raise some hope that a general decline in GABA may be correctable, explained Leventhal, who noted that people are born and die with the same nerve cells and more research should be conducted in preserving their function.

    SOURCE: Science 2003;300:812-815.

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    "Brain Chemical may Thwart Ravages of Aging"
    May is not does.

    Not that there I know, but with various transmitters, as some old LSD junkey, it is not beyond even my limited MBD grasp, that if messing around there via external inputs of such, eventually receptor molecules adapt towards differing numbers to correct this error.

    With that the hardware no longer is on correct settings there.
    Am I to take it here with this one, that such will not be the case?


    "A shot" (...) "briefly operated at levels" ...



    (...)the (...) cortex in old and young (...)
    (...)shots of (...)

    This crimes of physial brain rape of old and young women and men (or maybe even children, not sure down to what age these perversions of chemical brain rape were committed ... and I assume it involved forcing an opening into the skull also of the prisoners)

    of persons of a kind related so related to our ape homo chimp kind, that one can straight deduct due to our brains similariy,
    are a shame to the history of our ape kind on Earth.

    And to this history of this galaxy.

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    "The use of tranquilizers in aging monkeys suggests that the drugs may sharpen the sight, hearing and cognitive skills in aging" (...)

    And the use of tranquillizers in humans here in Berlin seems to suggest a messing up of natural brain balances, cognitive skills going down, emotional systems warps, so that social interrelations no longer can function natural,
    and all in all about for producing chemo zombies with warped transmitter and receptor molecule levels.

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    (...) ((Brain systems opinions / comments))

    "Because brain levels of GABA also play a role in several higher brain functions, such as interpreting what we see and hear, memory formation and movement control,"

    Intellectual ouch.

    Although it might make little sense to you, be informed that in my brain me, and IMO the sequencer are a lot to do with what us systems see and hear.
    And I am also to do with interpretations
    (and I ASSUME the sequencer also, though I assume rather differingly in various than me.)


    In context with memories I discern so far differing 5 "systems", though I assume there are more.
    At least 3 of these, if not more, have centering in differing brain regional locations.

    (With at least one of the others I'm not so sure, if this is alike overlapping to an extent with the others.)

    My self registered to use two main long term memory systems so far: I-base and front.

    I ASSUME in Westie science language this would be called hippocampal whatever and some frontal cortex whatever.

    Concering my self, I am not aware to have long term memory capacities.
    I have more alike current (I assume also lit. akasha "currents") memory.

    (That when not sensing interlinked with front at times in the past on drugs, felt to go down considerably in capacities.
    Also parallel processing capacities.)

    The sequencer in my brain registered to have own memory access that I don't have access, too.

    I assume a center of the sequencer (that some might also call auto-pilot) is in the thalamus.
    I assume the sequencer gets from the use of upper frontal cortex alike me from the use of lower frontal cortex to an extent similar capacities.

    So as with me co-using (however that goes) long term and detail memory in what I call "front"
    (I base memory I got the impressions has more less detailed and more basic data)
    I assume the sequencer does to an extent alike with upper frontal cortex.

    (Also assuming parallels with
    parallel processing capacities enabled.)


    "Because brain levels of GABA also play a role in several higher brain functions, such as interpreting what we see and hear, memory formation and movement control,"

    Movement control in my brain I regard averaged to have to do more with the sequencer
    (which I assume to have a main centering in the thalamus)
    than
    with my self.

    I am amazed at this utter lack of systems discernings.


    As MBD from the branch LSD, this reads to me like someone quite head-blind wrote this stuff.

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    BTW, Max,

    though it might not be very obvious,
    I appreciate for serious,
    that you have been taking the efforts to post
    not just texts as these here.

    Might just not be very obvious when I am busy with ranting off about some issues. ;-)


    :-)

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    Opinions:

    "the drugs made old monkeys' visual cortex nerve cells act "young" again. Instead of various cells firing regardless of whether monkeys saw vertical, horizontal or angled bars, some cells fired only when the monkeys saw vertical bars, some fired only when horizontal bars were seen, and so on."

    "there is more background "noise" - random nerve impulses in the visual cortex - "

    This text contra opinions that might be found among persons who transcended till enlightenment, regards something as "background noise".

    There seems to be not even the question along, if older cells might also have learned something beyond quick-IDing of shapes,
    and if this blocker drug might disable them.


    Without any thoughts whatsoever about what was actually committed into the brains of the prisoners and genetically partially over hundreds of millions of years old internal regulations of akasha balances and other aspects,

    imprisoned persons of related kinds get brain raped, messed around in, and parts of this than praised as being good for their brains.

    "adding to the improved function of the monkey's visual cortex."

    Do these people share this opinion, that was was committed there was good for their brains?
    Some Westie homo chimp brain raping them and messing around in them, that various in a lifetime might not recover emotionally and personally fully from what was committed into their systems,
    declares that if stuff is alike reduced down to fast-ID like seeming stuff, without any thoughts whatsoever about that there can be advantages also to other forms of perception, declares what seems a blocker drug stuffed into natural akasha harmonies of a brain to be real good for this person's brain system.


    I reserve me very serious doubts.

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    (...)

    "the animals"

    The persons "are

    available"

    Is this what imprisoning women and men and children is called,

    of kinds so related to our homo chimp ape kind, one is straight assuming if there so, in our ape mammal kind so, as we are so closely internally related in our brain functions.


    "in the area's temperate rainforest."

    Reads remotely alike homo chimps are avaiable for brain rape in cities.

    So in other words the concept is to go make prisoners in a rainforest, and delight in our high internal brain systems relatedness while forcing openings into the skulls of the prisoners to brain rape them and mess around there with trodes, etc.

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    (...)

    "but as far as your brains and your brain cells
    (... cells ...)
    so new ones will no longer be you."

    Intellectual ouch. I am not cells in my brain
    (and even far less all cells sorts of all sectors there undiscerned, and set apart from the body, like cells there with the same genetic source origin code were of another entity).


    May I take it after thousands of years of magical research, if not more, on differing continents of Earth parallel, it has not been noticed by this person yet, that spirit travellers at spirit travelling there do not tend to have their cells along in the hand-luggage.


    How typically sense censored Westie science.


    Instead of YOUing around, the writer of the stuff might rather consider, how many thousands, of not far more, he lags back behind Magie research on various understandings.

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