• Betz RR, Johnston TE, Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ and McCarthy JJ (2002). Three-year follow-up of an implanted functional electrical stimulation system for upright mobility in a child with a thoracic level spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 25:345-50. Summary: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system with the use of knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFO) for upright mobility over a 3-year period in a child with a spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: A 13-year-old boy with a T8 complete SCI received a lower extremity implanted FES system. Electrodes were implanted for knee extension and for hip extension, abduction, and adduction. After training and at annual intervals, independence and timeliness in completing 7 upright mobility activities with FES and KAFO, as well as stimulated muscle strength, were assessed. RESULTS: Results have shown that FES provided independence equal to that of KAFO for all activities. Four activities were accomplished more quickly with FES, including donning the system, reaching a high object, transferring to a high surface, and walking 6 m. A floor-to-stand transfer was faster with KAFO. Functional results and stimulated muscle strength have remained stable over the 3-year period. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that FES can provide function equal to or faster than KAFO in a child with a T8 complete SCI and that performance with the FES system can remain stable for at least 3 years. Shriners Hospitals for Children, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.