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Thread: New clues to why nerve cells fail to grow in scar tissue

  1. #11
    wow!! i wish i had taken biology as my main subject during my school days.i am at a loss to understand and contribute here .Where i live SCI is rare, this is the only credible source in which i can know what is happening. Jesus i have really learnt alot reading these threads. I am a T11 complete as from last sebtember 2010, my doctors advise me to accept my condition and move on. not accepting it is my main motivator to fight it, yes wise i have hope and may God bless you.
    i really wish to contact you guys personally to share knowledge and experience

    Peter from Malta

  2. #12
    Quote Originally Posted by Wise Young View Post
    There are several ways to overcome inhibitory extracellular matrix molecules, such as chondroitin-6-sulfate-proteoglycan (CSPG). One way is to break down CSPG with chondroitinase. This has been used successfully by many dozens of laboratories. Although a single injection of chondroitinase into a contused spinal cord will clear most CSPG from 2 cm around the injection site for several weeks and it will return only as more CSPG is made and secrete by astrocytes in the area.

    Chondroitinase, however, has several weaknesses as a therapy. First, it is an enzyme that is relatively unstable at body temperatures. Therefore, if one wants to keep the tissue free of CSPG for a long time, one has to give repeated injections of the enzyme. Recently, a more stable version of the enzyme was reported. Second, it is a enzyme made by a common bacteria and many people may have antibodies against this enzyme. Third, there may be other growth inhibitors. Fourth, CSPG does play an important role in restricting cell migration and growth.

    Nevertheless, I think that it is a very useful enzyme that can be used create a several-week long "window" for axons to cross the injury site. Used in combination with a cellular bridge and other blockers of axonal growth inhibitors, it may well work. Note that it is possible to get axons to ignore CSPG by increase cAMP levels inside the axons. Likewise, lithium is known to stimulate axons to grow across areas of CSPG.

    Wise.
    Thank you Wise for the clear picture.

    Paolo
    In God we trust; all others bring data. - Edwards Deming

  3. #13
    Quote Originally Posted by Wise Young View Post
    There are several ways to overcome inhibitory extracellular matrix molecules, such as chondroitin-6-sulfate-proteoglycan (CSPG). One way is to break down CSPG with chondroitinase. This has been used successfully by many dozens of laboratories. Although a single injection of chondroitinase into a contused spinal cord will clear most CSPG from 2 cm around the injection site for several weeks and it will return only as more CSPG is made and secrete by astrocytes in the area.

    Chondroitinase, however, has several weaknesses as a therapy. First, it is an enzyme that is relatively unstable at body temperatures. Therefore, if one wants to keep the tissue free of CSPG for a long time, one has to give repeated injections of the enzyme. Recently, a more stable version of the enzyme was reported. Second, it is a enzyme made by a common bacteria and many people may have antibodies against this enzyme. Third, there may be other growth inhibitors. Fourth, CSPG does play an important role in restricting cell migration and growth.

    Nevertheless, I think that it is a very useful enzyme that can be used create a several-week long "window" for axons to cross the injury site. Used in combination with a cellular bridge and other blockers of axonal growth inhibitors, it may well work. Note that it is possible to get axons to ignore CSPG by increase cAMP levels inside the axons. Likewise, lithium is known to stimulate axons to grow across areas of CSPG.

    Wise.
    Wise,

    last week I heard a presentation given by James Fawcett. He said that on humans the chonroitinase will need to be injected in the spinal cord. That will require to open the dura.
    He confirmed that a single injections will clear CSPGs for 2 weeks and he can't tell at the moment if 2 weeks is long enough to have positive effects in humans.
    He believes that in clinic you can't open the dura again to do another injection of Chondroitinase after two weeks.
    He thinks that it is more likely to find a way to inject enough chontroitinase to clear the CSPGs for as long as tree weeks.

    Unfortunatly I didn't have a chance to ask him why can't be considered to use pump to infuse the chondroitinase as long as needed?

    Do you know what the problem would be using pump?
    In God we trust; all others bring data. - Edwards Deming

  4. #14
    Quote Originally Posted by paolocipolla View Post
    Wise,

    last week I heard a presentation given by James Fawcett. He said that on humans the chonroitinase will need to be injected in the spinal cord. That will require to open the dura.
    He confirmed that a single injections will clear CSPGs for 2 weeks and he can't tell at the moment if 2 weeks is long enough to have positive effects in humans.
    He believes that in clinic you can't open the dura again to do another injection of Chondroitinase after two weeks.
    He thinks that it is more likely to find a way to inject enough chontroitinase to clear the CSPGs for as long as tree weeks.

    Unfortunatly I didn't have a chance to ask him why can't be considered to use pump to infuse the chondroitinase as long as needed?

    Do you know what the problem would be using pump?
    Animal studies indicate that the chondroitinase delivered intrathecally by pumps is not effective. Elizabeth Bradbury who worked with James Fawcett was the first to show that chondroitinase improve walking recovery by injecting freshly prepared chondroitinase directly into the spinal cord. I am not sure why intrathecal chondroitinase is not effective. The material may not get into the spinal cord or the chondroitinase may have lost potency while sitting in the pump of many days.

    There have been several reports of newer forms of chondroitinase that are heat-resistant and non-bacterial (i.e. human). So, there are other advances coming down the pike.

    Wise.

  5. #15
    Every time I get a bit tired of it all, I read something like this and it sparks me up again....

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