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Thread: pretty new publication for chronic sci

  1. #1
    Senior Member lunasicc42's Avatar
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    pretty new publication for chronic sci

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  2. #2
    Let us count the "abstracts". . .

    Unfortunate that Dr. Young is the only person interested clinical trials.
    please . . .test what you already know; and give us what you have. we may not be dying, but we certainly are not living either

  3. #3
    Quote Originally Posted by lunasicc42 View Post
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20599980

    Exp Neurol. 2010 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]
    Peripheral nerve grafts after cervical spinal cord injury in adult cats.
    Côté MP, Hanna A, Lemay MA, Ollivier-Lanvin K, Santi L, Miller K, Monaghan R, Houlé JD.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19129.
    Abstract
    Peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) into the rat spinal cord support axon regeneration after acute or chronic injury, with synaptic reconnection across the lesion site and some level of behavioral recovery. Here, we grafted a peripheral nerve into the injured spinal cord of cats as a preclinical treatment approach to promote regeneration for eventual translational use. Adult female cats received a partial hemisection lesion at the cervical level (C7) and immediate apposition of an autologous tibial nerve segment to the lesion site. Five weeks later, a dorsal quadrant lesion was performed caudally (T1), the lesion site treated with Chondroitinase ABC two days later to digest growth inhibiting extracellular matrix molecules, and the distal end of the PNG apposed to the injury site. After 4-20weeks, the grafts survived in 10/12 animals with several thousand myelinated axons present in each graft. The distal end of 9/10 grafts was well apposed to the spinal cord and numerous axons extended beyond the lesion site. Intraspinal stimulation evoked compound action potentials in the graft with an appropriate latency illustrating normal axonal conduction of the regenerated axons. Although stimulation of the PNG failed to elicit responses in the spinal cord distal to the lesion site, the presence of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons close to the distal apposition site indicates that regenerated axons formed functional synapses with host neurons. This study demonstrates the successful application of a nerve grafting approach to promote regeneration after spinal cord injury in a non-rodent, large animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    It is sort of interesting that this work is being published today. In the 1960's, this was the hottest approach of bridging injured spinal cords of cats. In those days, cats were the animal of choice until regulatory changes and pressure from the animal liberation movement made it impossible to do these experiments. The axons grew into the injury site but unfortunately did not grow out. Xiao Ming Xu at the Miami Project made Schwann cell grafts and showed that axons grew in the bridges but did not like growing out. This is what Carl Kao was doing, putting peripheral nerves into the spinal cord of humans.

    Wise.

  4. #4
    Quote Originally Posted by Wise Young View Post
    It is sort of interesting that this work is being published today. In the 1960's, this was the hottest approach of bridging injured spinal cords of cats. In those days, cats were the animal of choice until regulatory changes and pressure from the animal liberation movement made it impossible to do these experiments. The axons grew into the injury site but unfortunately did not grow out. Xiao Ming Xu at the Miami Project made Schwann cell grafts and showed that axons grew in the bridges but did not like growing out. This is what Carl Kao was doing, putting peripheral nerves into the spinal cord of humans.

    Wise.
    Didn't Albert Aguayo publish similar work sometime back around 1982?

  5. #5
    Quote Originally Posted by PaidMyDues View Post
    Didn't Albert Aguayo publish similar work sometime back around 1982?
    Aguayo did do a study with Sam David, showing that a peripheral nerve can be used to bridge axons from above the injury site to below the injury site. This experiment done in 1981 was the first to shown that spinal axons can grow in peripheral nerve if they are given a peripheral nerve path to grow. That led to the hypothesis that the spinal cord has axonal growth inhibitors.

    Henreich Cheng in 1995 published a very influential paper bridging from white matter to gray matter (assuming that white matter have inhibitors while gray matter doesn't). The paper was published with Lars Olsen and and Yihai Cao and showed the first recovery of walking associated with such bridging therapy. Unfortunately, his results were not replicated until recently.

    Actually, there are a whole slew of papers published this year showing the peripheral nerve grafts can restore function in animals with spinal cord injury. This therapeutic approach has been resurrected about once every five years for nearly three decades. The recent interest in peripheral graft is actually very impressive.

    1. Lee YS, Zdunowski S, Edgerton VR, Roy RR, Zhong H, Hsiao I and Lin VW Improvement of gait patterns in step-trained, complete spinal cord-transected rats treated with a peripheral nerve graft and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Exp Neurol Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States; Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States; VA Long Beach Healthcare System, CA, United States. The effects of peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (alphaFGF) combined with step training on the locomotor performance of complete spinal cord-transected (ST, T8) adult rats were studied. Rats were assigned randomly to five groups (N=10 per group): sham control (laminectomy only), ST only, ST-step-trained, repaired (ST with PNG and alphaFGF treatment), or repaired-step-trained. Step-trained rats were stepped bipedally on a treadmill 20min/day, 5days/week for 6months. Bipolar intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted in the soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of ST-step-trained (n=3) and repaired-step-trained (n=2) rats. Gait analysis was conducted at 3 and 6months after surgery. Stepping analysis was completed on the best continuous 10-s period of stepping performed in a 2-min trial. Significantly better stepping (number of steps, stance duration, swing duration, maximum step length, and maximum step height) was observed in the repaired and repaired-step-trained than in the ST and ST-step-trained rats. Mean EMG amplitudes in both the soleus and TA were significantly higher and the patterns of activation of flexors and extensors more reciprocal in the repaired-step-trained than ST-step-trained rats. 5-HT fibers were present in the lumbar area of repaired but not ST rats. Thus, PNG plus alphaFGF treatment resulted in a clear improvement in locomotor performance with or without step training. Furthermore, the number of 5-HT fibers observed below the lesion was related directly to stepping performance. These observations indicate that the improved stepping performance in Repaired rats may be due to newly formed supraspinal control via regeneration.

    2. Cote MP, Hanna A, Lemay MA, Ollivier-Lanvin K, Santi L, Miller K, Monaghan R and Houle JD Peripheral nerve grafts after cervical spinal cord injury in adult cats. Exp Neurol Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19129. Peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) into the rat spinal cord support axon regeneration after acute or chronic injury, with synaptic reconnection across the lesion site and some level of behavioral recovery. Here, we grafted a peripheral nerve into the injured spinal cord of cats as a preclinical treatment approach to promote regeneration for eventual translational use. Adult female cats received a partial hemisection lesion at the cervical level (C7) and immediate apposition of an autologous tibial nerve segment to the lesion site. Five weeks later, a dorsal quadrant lesion was performed caudally (T1), the lesion site treated with Chondroitinase ABC two days later to digest growth inhibiting extracellular matrix molecules, and the distal end of the PNG apposed to the injury site. After 4-20weeks, the grafts survived in 10/12 animals with several thousand myelinated axons present in each graft. The distal end of 9/10 grafts was well apposed to the spinal cord and numerous axons extended beyond the lesion site. Intraspinal stimulation evoked compound action potentials in the graft with an appropriate latency illustrating normal axonal conduction of the regenerated axons. Although stimulation of the PNG failed to elicit responses in the spinal cord distal to the lesion site, the presence of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons close to the distal apposition site indicates that regenerated axons formed functional synapses with host neurons. This study demonstrates the successful application of a nerve grafting approach to promote regeneration after spinal cord injury in a non-rodent, large animal model.

    3. Chi JH Scar-busting chondroitinase with peripheral nerve grafting promotes axonal regeneration in chronic spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 66: N12.


    Wise.

  6. #6
    Quote Originally Posted by Wise Young View Post
    Aguayo did do a study with Sam David, showing that a peripheral nerve can be used to bridge axons from above the injury site to below the injury site. This experiment done in 1981 was the first to shown that spinal axons can grow in peripheral nerve if they are given a peripheral nerve path to grow. That led to the hypothesis that the spinal cord has axonal growth inhibitors.

    Henreich Cheng in 1995 published a very influential paper bridging from white matter to gray matter (assuming that white matter have inhibitors while gray matter doesn't). The paper was published with Lars Olsen and and Yihai Cao and showed the first recovery of walking associated with such bridging therapy. Unfortunately, his results were not replicated until recently.

    Actually, there are a whole slew of papers published this year showing the peripheral nerve grafts can restore function in animals with spinal cord injury. This therapeutic approach has been resurrected about once every five years for nearly three decades. The recent interest in peripheral graft is actually very impressive.

    1. Lee YS, Zdunowski S, Edgerton VR, Roy RR, Zhong H, Hsiao I and Lin VW Improvement of gait patterns in step-trained, complete spinal cord-transected rats treated with a peripheral nerve graft and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Exp Neurol Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States; Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States; VA Long Beach Healthcare System, CA, United States. The effects of peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (alphaFGF) combined with step training on the locomotor performance of complete spinal cord-transected (ST, T8) adult rats were studied. Rats were assigned randomly to five groups (N=10 per group): sham control (laminectomy only), ST only, ST-step-trained, repaired (ST with PNG and alphaFGF treatment), or repaired-step-trained. Step-trained rats were stepped bipedally on a treadmill 20min/day, 5days/week for 6months. Bipolar intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted in the soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of ST-step-trained (n=3) and repaired-step-trained (n=2) rats. Gait analysis was conducted at 3 and 6months after surgery. Stepping analysis was completed on the best continuous 10-s period of stepping performed in a 2-min trial. Significantly better stepping (number of steps, stance duration, swing duration, maximum step length, and maximum step height) was observed in the repaired and repaired-step-trained than in the ST and ST-step-trained rats. Mean EMG amplitudes in both the soleus and TA were significantly higher and the patterns of activation of flexors and extensors more reciprocal in the repaired-step-trained than ST-step-trained rats. 5-HT fibers were present in the lumbar area of repaired but not ST rats. Thus, PNG plus alphaFGF treatment resulted in a clear improvement in locomotor performance with or without step training. Furthermore, the number of 5-HT fibers observed below the lesion was related directly to stepping performance. These observations indicate that the improved stepping performance in Repaired rats may be due to newly formed supraspinal control via regeneration.

    2. Cote MP, Hanna A, Lemay MA, Ollivier-Lanvin K, Santi L, Miller K, Monaghan R and Houle JD Peripheral nerve grafts after cervical spinal cord injury in adult cats. Exp Neurol Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19129. Peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) into the rat spinal cord support axon regeneration after acute or chronic injury, with synaptic reconnection across the lesion site and some level of behavioral recovery. Here, we grafted a peripheral nerve into the injured spinal cord of cats as a preclinical treatment approach to promote regeneration for eventual translational use. Adult female cats received a partial hemisection lesion at the cervical level (C7) and immediate apposition of an autologous tibial nerve segment to the lesion site. Five weeks later, a dorsal quadrant lesion was performed caudally (T1), the lesion site treated with Chondroitinase ABC two days later to digest growth inhibiting extracellular matrix molecules, and the distal end of the PNG apposed to the injury site. After 4-20weeks, the grafts survived in 10/12 animals with several thousand myelinated axons present in each graft. The distal end of 9/10 grafts was well apposed to the spinal cord and numerous axons extended beyond the lesion site. Intraspinal stimulation evoked compound action potentials in the graft with an appropriate latency illustrating normal axonal conduction of the regenerated axons. Although stimulation of the PNG failed to elicit responses in the spinal cord distal to the lesion site, the presence of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons close to the distal apposition site indicates that regenerated axons formed functional synapses with host neurons. This study demonstrates the successful application of a nerve grafting approach to promote regeneration after spinal cord injury in a non-rodent, large animal model.

    3. Chi JH Scar-busting chondroitinase with peripheral nerve grafting promotes axonal regeneration in chronic spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 66: N12.


    Wise.
    Was the study by Lee, Zdunowski, et al. with acute or chronic SCI?

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