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Thread: Urological terms and procedres for SCI and other neurogenic disorders [A-P]

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    Urological terms and procedres for SCI and other neurogenic disorders [A-P]

    Adjuvant
    A drug or agent added to another drug or agent to enhance its medical effectiveness.
    An adjuvant is a substance that helps and enhances the pharmacological effect of a drug or increases the ability of an antigen to stimulate the immune system
    Something that is added on. For example, adjuvant cryotherapy is cryotherapy added on to another form of therapy.

    Anastomosis
    the surgical union of parts and especially hollow tubular parts anastomosis of the ureter and colon is surgically practicable.
    The connection of normally separate parts or spaces so they intercommunicate. An anastomosis may be naturally occurring or artificially constructed and be created during the process of embryonic development or by surgery, trauma or pathological means.

    Antibiotic
    A pharmaceutical that kills certain types of bacteria.

    Antibiotic Prophylaxis:
    Daily treatment with antibiotics to prevent infection.

    Anticholinergic
    A drug often prescribed for those with indwelling catheters to reduce spasms of smooth muscle, including the bladder. Blocking impulses from the part of the nervous system that controls heartbeat, blood pressure and other responses to stress. A drug that interferes with the effects of acetylcholine. These drugs assist with bladder storage by increasing bladder contractions and are used to treat urge incontinence. Anticholinergics block certain receptors (acetylcholine), resulting in inhibition of certain nerve impulses (parasympathetic).
    Brand names include Daricon, ProBanthine, Urispas, Ditropan, and Cystospaz. Side effects may include constipation, nausea, dry mouth, and blurred vision. Caution: combined with alcohol, anticholinergics can cause extreme drowsiness.

    Anuria
    A condition in which the body stops making urine.

    Artificial Sphincter. Artificial Urinary Sphincter (AUS)
    Device used for treatment of urinary incontinence. Consists of three components: a pump, balloon reservoir and a cuff that encircles the urethra and prevents urine from leaking out.
    Sometimes complicated cases of incontinence require implantation of a device known as an artificial urinary sphincter. People who might benefit from this treatment include those who are incontinent after surgery for prostate cancer or stress incontinence, trauma victims and people with congenital defects in the urinary system. The artificial sphincter has three components, including a pump, balloon reservoir, and a cuff that encircles the urethra and prevents urine from leaking out. The cuff is connected to the pump, which is surgically implanted in the scrotum (in men) or labia (in women). The pump can be activated (usually by squeezing or pressing a button) to deflate the cuff and permit the bladder to empty. After a brief interval, the cuff refills itself and the urethra is again closed. Because the artificial sphincter is an implant, it is subject to the risks common to implants, such as infection, erosion (breaking down of tissue) and mechanical malfunction. Yet with appropriate pre-surgical evaluation, operative techniques and postoperative follow-up, many problems can be avoided and incontinent patients can experience an improved quality of life with this device.

    Asymptomatic
    The lack of recognizable symptoms of a particular disorder.

    Augmentation Cystoplasty
    Makes the bladder larger, most often by adding a section of the patient's small intestine, a tube-like structure that absorbs and transports nutrients from food for use by the body. With this treatment, scarred, ulcerated and inflamed sections of the patient's bladder are removed, leaving only healthy tissue and the base of the bladder. A piece of the patient's small intestine is removed, reshaped, and attached to what remains of the bladder. After the incisions heal, the patient may be able to void normally. Even in carefully selected patients-those with small, contracted bladders-the pain, frequency, and urgency may remain or return after surgery and the patient may have additional problems with infections in the new bladder and difficulty absorbing nutrients from the shortened intestine. Some patients are incontinent while others cannot void at all and must insert a catheter into the urethra to empty urine from the bladder. Also known as bladder augmentation.

    Autonomic Dysreflexia (Hyperreflexia)
    A syndrome attributed to interruption of spinal cord sympathetic pathways. It is a condition that can occur in anyone who has a spinal cord injury at or above the T6 level. It is related to disconnections between the body below the injury and the control mechanisms for blood pressure and heart function. It causes the blood pressure to rise to potentially dangerous levels.

    Bacteremia
    The presence of live bacteria in the bloodstream

    Bacterial infection
    Infection by minute, one-celled organisms which multiply by dividing in one or more directions.

    Bladder
    The human organ in which urine is collected and stored. A hollow, muscular, balloon-shaped organ that stores urine until it is excreted

    Bladder Compliance
    A term used for the bladder to determine its ability to stretch or expand. Persons can have a "poorly compliant bladder" which means that the bladder doesn't stretch as well and holds smaller amounts of urine.

    Bladder Augmentation:
    Operation that uses a piece of the intestine (bowel) to enlarge the bladder.
    This is a procedure in which a piece of the bowel, stomach or ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) is used to enlarge the bladder. This allows the bladder to hold more urine at lower pressure.
    Goals of bladder augmentation and incontinence surgery:

    • increase bladder capacity
    • decrease bladder pressure
    • prevent kidney damage
    • stop urinary leakage
    • improve quality of life
    Bladder augmentation is an operation performed to increase the size of the bladder. This type of surgery is for patients whose bladder is not large enough to hold the usual amount of urine made by the kidneys. In some patients, the urine may leak from the bladder, causing wetting (incontinence). For other patients, the bladder muscle may lose its ability to stretch (expand). If this happens, pressure within the bladder can become too high. This increased pressure may be harmful to the kidneys because urine may not drain properly. This may also cause the urine to back up through the ureters all the way to the kidneys. This backup is called reflux. Bladder augmentation is performed to decrease the pressure within the bladder, to increase the size of the bladder or to improve its ability to stretch (expand).
    http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/A-Ce/Bladder-Augmentation.html

    Bladder Instillation
    Medicine administered directly into the bladder.

    Bladder Stones
    Bladder stones are large pieces of minerals formed and retained in the urinary bladder.

    Bladder Training
    Method by which the bladder is trained to empty (micturition) without the use of an indwelling catheter. Involves drinking measured amounts of fluid, and allowing the bladder to fill and empty at timed intervals. See intermittent catheterization. A behavioral modification technique used to resist or inhibit the urge to urinate unpredictably.

    Bladder Ultrasound:
    Also referred to as bladder scan. A method of measuring the urine that remains in the bladder. This is a test that is used to diagnose incomplete bladder emptying. An ultrasound uses sound waves to measure the urine volume--its painless and doesn't involve the use of radiation like X-rays.

    Bladder X-Ray:
    The use of an X-ray picture to examine the bladder and urethra. An X-ray is taken during urination while a radiactive substance is in the bladder.

    (BOTOX®) Botulinum Toxin Injection (bladder)
    A purified toxin made from a bacterium is injected into bladder muscles to treat overactive bladder symptoms.

    Bowel Preparation
    The cleaning of the bowels or intestines prior to abdominal surgery.

    Calcifications
    Hard, dense, stonelike material that forms in numerous areas throughout the body, including arteries (plaque), veins (phleboliths), kidneys (stones), and gallbladder (gallstones).

    Calcium Oxalate Stones:
    Most common kidney stones, made up of hard crystalline compound, often mixed with calcium phosphate.
    About 70% to 80% of all kidney stones are composed of hard crystals of either calcium oxalate or insoluble phosphate salt, or a combination of both. Calcium stones are the most common type experienced by people of Anglo-Saxon descent. They occur in people who have hypercalciuria, a condition characterized by excessive calcium in the urine. Calcium is a normal part of a well-balanced diet, responsible for maintaining the health of teeth and bones. In most people, excess calcium is flushed out by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. People with hypercalciuria build up excess calcium in their kidneys, where it joins with other waste products to form a stone. In about 40% of people who develop calcium stones, this buildup is caused by an inherited metabolic disorder whose cause is unknown. In rare cases, a tumor on the parathyroid gland may trigger an overproduction of parathyroid hormone, the chemical that regulates calcium metabolism. Certain drugs, such as the diuretic furosemide, antacids and steroids, can produce hypercalciuria. It also can be brought on by certain intestinal diseases, excessive amounts of vitamin A or D, or a diet too high in purine, typically associated with meat, fish and poultry consumption. Calcium oxalate stones also are commonly associated with having too little vitamin B or too much vitamin C in one's diet.

    Calculi. Calculus
    Also known as a stone. Abnormal hard formation of minerals in the body. Stones that may form in either kidney or bladder.

    Calyses, Calyx
    Funnel-shaped hollow in the pelvis of the kidney through which urine passes to the ureter.

    CAT Scan, CT Scan
    Also known as computerized tomography, computerized axial tomography or CT scan. A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images of the body. Shows detailed images of any part of the body, including bones, muscles, fat and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. A specialized x-ray examination that is often used to visualize the brain and spinal structures, chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

    Catheter
    A thin tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to allow urine to drain or for performance of a procedure or test, such as insertion of a substance during a bladder X-ray. A flexible rubber or plastic tube for withdrawing or introducing fluids into a cavity of the body, usually the bladder.

    Catheterization:
    Insertion of a slender tube through the urethra or through the anterior abdominal wall into the bladder, urinary reservoir, or urinary conduit to allow urine drainage. Insertion of a catheter.

    Chemolysis
    Destruction through the use of chemicals; chemical injection treatment to dissolve kidney stones.

    Certain types of kidney stones can be dissolved with the application chemicals. Uric acid stones, for example, can be dissolved with a solution of sodium bicarbonate in saline. Cystine stones may be treated successfully with a combination of acetylcysteine and sodium bicarbonate in saline. Struvite and carbon apatite stones can be treated with an acidic solution of hemiacidrin. The procedure involves infusing the chemical solution into the affected area by means of a ureteral catheter in a series of treatments over time until the stone is dissolved. The patient's urine must be cultured regularly throughout the course of treatment to guard against urinary infection and prevent the buildup of excessive chemical levels, particularly magnesium, which can cause other health problems.

    Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
    An uncommon form of prostatitis caused by bacteria traveling up the urethra and the backward flow of infected urine into the prostatic ducts causing recurrent infections.
    As in cases of CBP, the initial bacterial infection may be caused by bacteria traveling up the urethra and reflux of infected urine into the prostatic ducts. This can be brought on by the use of a urinary catheter, enlargement of the patient's prostate, a bladder infection or bacteria acquired by engaging in anal intercourse.

    Chronic Non-Bacterial Prostatitis
    A condition affecting patients who have symptoms of prostatitis without a positive result after urine culture or expressed prostate secretion (EPS) culture.
    Clean Intermittent Catheterization (CIC)
    Periodic insertion of a clean catheter into the urethra after washing your hands to drain the urine from the bladder.

    Colon
    Tubular structure from the stomach to the anus that consists of the small intestine and the large intestine.

    Condom Catheter:
    External urine collecting device used by males. A device or cone-shaped condom catheter that is placed over the penis to allow for urine drainage in men who have urinary incontinence. These devices are attached to the shaft of the penis by some form of adhesive and are connected to urine collecting bags by a tube.
    Conduit Diversion
    The creation of various intestinal conduits to the skin.

    Continent Cutaneous Reservoir
    With a continent cutaneous reservoir, an internal pouch stores urine. The patient uses a catheter or plastic tube to empty urine through the stoma.

    If your urethra is preserved during the operation, you may be able to have a urinary diversion that does not require a stoma or catheter.
    Cutaneous continent urinary diversion
    Cutaneous continent urinary diversion refers to use of the gastrointestinal tract to create a new bladder, which is attached to the skin inside the body. This form of urinary diversion does not require the use of a collection appliance, however the patient is required to place a catheter or small plastic tube into their new bladder four to five times per day to empty the reservoir.
    Continent Diversion
    Includes either a rectal reservoir or continent cutaneous diversion.

    Another method of storing and eliminating urine is the continent diversion. In this method, the surgeon creates a pouch, or reservoir, inside your body from a section of your stomach or small or large intestine. The ureters carry urine to the pouch, where it is stored. Depending on the type of continent diversion, you may or may not have a stoma.
    Continent Rerservoir
    As with the creation of a continent rerservoir (internal pouch), this operation requires skill and experience on the part of the surgical team. The patient must also be in relative good health and able to withstand the longer operation and recovery period

    Continent Urinary Diversion, Continent Urinary Reservoirs
    The continent urinary reservoir is the newest form of Urinary Tract Diversion. With this technique, a piece of colon (large intestine) is removed and used to form an internal pouch to store urine. The pouch is specially refashioned to prevent back-up of urine into the ureters (one of two tubes that pass urine out of the kidneys and into the bladder) and kidneys. The patient—whether male or female—can urinate as before, without the need for an external bag or collection device. The urinary reservoir procedure is associated with some complications, such as bowel (intestine) obstruction, blood clots, pneumonia (lung inflammation), ureteral reflux (back-flow), and ureteral blockage.

    Urinary diversion is a term used when the bladder is removed or the normal structures are being bypassed and an opening is made in the urinary system to divert urine. The flow of urine is diverted through an opening in the abdominal wall. Individuals who might require urinary diversion would be those whose bladders were non-functional or needed to be removed due to cancer or injury.

    Continent urinary diversion describes all forms of urinary diversion that enable the patient to urinate at his or her own discretion without the use of any form of appliance or collecting device. This form of urinary diversion can be broadly divided into two categories: cutaneous and orthotopic.

    Involves the creation of a pouch or bladder inside the body, usually using part of the digestive tract.

    Involves the creation of an internal pouch from loops
    of intestine that is connected to the surface of the abdomen.
    There is a “one-way” passage between the opening on the abdomen (stoma) and the internal pouch so that urine is contained in the pouch. The urine is drained by passing a catheter through the stoma and into the pouch every three to four hours.

    Creatinine Clearance
    A 24-hour urine collection test to assess how the kidneys are functioning.

    Crede
    A technique of pressing down and inward over the bladder to facilitate voiding. Pronounced "cruh-day." This practice is no longer recommended.

    CT KUB
    Computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis in which no oral or intravenous dyes are used, which is often used to detect conditions such as acute appendicitis, renal or ureteral stones, and diverticulitis.

    CT Scan
    Computerized axial Tomography is a cross-sectional X-ray enhancement technique that greatly benefits diagnosis with high-resolution video images.

    Cutaneous:
    Relating to the skin.

    Cystectomy:
    Surgical removal of the bladder. Different methods can be used to reroute urine once the bladder has been removed. In most cases, the ureters are attached to a piece of bowel that opens onto the skin of the abdomen, called a stoma. Urine empties through the stoma into a bag outside the body. This procedure is called a urostomy. Some urologists are using a technique that also requires a stoma but allows urine to be stored in a pouch inside the abdomen. At intervals throughout the day, the patient puts a catheter into the stoma and empties the pouch. Patients with either type of urostomy must use very clean, or sterile, steps to prevent infections in and around the stoma. With a third method, a new bladder is made from a piece of the patient's bowel (large intestine) and attached to the urethra in place of the removed bladder. After a time of healing, the patient may be able to empty the bladder by voiding at scheduled times or may insert a catheter into the urethra. Few surgeons have the special training and expertise needed to perform this procedure. Even after total bladder removal, some patients still experience variable symptoms of IC. Therefore, the decision to undergo a cystectomy should only be undertaken after serious deliberation on the potential outcome.

    Cystine Stone:
    A rare form of kidney stone consisting of the amino acid cystine.
    Cystine is one of the body's chemical building blocks, an amino acid that helps make up nerves, muscles and other body tissues. A rare genetic defect called cystinuria can cause excessive cystine buildup in the urine, leading to the development of cystine stones in the kidneys. Cystine stones are relatively rare, occurring in about 1% to 2% of persons who experience kidney stone disease. Because it is genetically inherited, the condition often runs in families.

    Cystinuria
    A condition in which urine contains high levels of the amino acid cystine. If cystine does not dissolve in the urine, it can build up to form kidney stones.

    Cystitis
    A bacterial infection of the lower urinary tract or bladder. Inflammation of the bladder, causing pain and a burning feeling in the pelvis or urethra.

    People with interstitial cystitis (IC) have an inflamed, or irritated, bladder wall. This inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, glomerulations (pinpoint bleeding) and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining.

    Cystocele
    A herniation of bladder into vagina.

    Cystogram (CG):
    An X-ray examination of the bladder utilizing contrast material injected into the bladder. X-ray taken after injecting dye into bladder.
    Cystolithotomy

    Cystometrogram (CMG)
    This is a test used to evaluate the bladder's ability to store and release urine. It uses a device to pump water into the bladder. The device then measures the amount of fluid that goes into the bladder when you first feel the desire to void, when you are able to sense fullness, and when your bladder is completely full.
    The cystometrogram is the most important of the urodynamic tests. It is used to examine the different phases of bladder function, such as filling and voiding. During cystometry, the intra-abdominal pressure (pressure within the pelvic cavity) and the detrusor pressure (downward-pushing pressure of the bladder) are electronically recorded and subtracted. In tests of filling cystometry, the bladder is filled to capacity, then tested for volume, sensation, involuntary instability (contraction, or muscle squeezing) and compliance (yielding to pressure). Any change in detrusor pressure may indicate an abnormality, especially if it mimics the patient's symptoms, such as urgency and increased frequency of urination. The patient is asked to cough and strain with a full bladder. Urine leakage without a change in detrusor pressure may indicate a diagnosis of stress incontinence. By contrast, patients with urge incontinence may experience detrusor contractions, with urine leak during filling and a related sensation of urgency. Voiding cystometry tests usually are normal in patients with stress incontinence, urge incontinence, and mixed incontinence. However, patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency may lose urine without any indication of detrusor contraction. In addition, patients with an acontractile (noncontracting, nonsqueezing) bladder -- for example, patients with diabetes, spinal cord injury or prior pelvic surgery -- will have a low detrusor pressure during voiding and a pattern of straining.

    Cystometry
    Alco called cystometrogram. A test used to assess the function of the bladder by measuring the pressure/volume as the bladder is slowly being filled. Cystometry is used to assess bladder, urge sensation, capacity and compliance. There are different variations of the test depending on the problem being investigated but regardless of the technique, the test always involves insertion of a catheter into the bladder. An exam measuring the pressure of forces to empty, or resisting to empty, the bladder.

    Cystoscope
    An optical instrument (a scope) that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A cystoscope has two ports. Aside from the optical port that permits one to see inside the bladder, there is an additional port in the instrument for insertion of various instruments designed for biopsy (removal of tissue samples), treatment of small bladder tumors, removal of stones from the bladder, and removal of the prostate (prostatectomy).

    Cystoscopy
    A procedure in which the doctor inserts a lighted instrument called a cystoscope into the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) in order to look inside the urethra and bladder. Also known as cystourethroscopy. An examination with a narrow, flexible tube-like instrument passed through the urethra to examine the bladder and urinary tract for structural abnormalities or obstructions, such as tumors or stones.

    Cystourethrogram
    Also called a voiding cystogram. A specific X-ray that examines the urinary tract. A catheter (hollows tube) is placed in the urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body)and the bladder is filled with a liquid dye. X-ray images are taken as the bladder fills and empties. The X-rays will show if there is any reverse flow of urine into the ureters and kidneys.

    Decreased Bladder Compliance
    A failure to store urine in the bladder caused by the loss of bladder wall elasticity and of bladder accommodation. This condition may result from radiation cystitis or from inflammatory bladder conditions.

    Detrusor-External Sphincter Dyssynergia (DESD)
    Lack of coordination between the bladder and the external sphincter muscle, resulting in the inability to empty the bladder completely, which may cause severe urinary tract damage and life-threatening consequences.

    Detrusor Hyperactivity with Impaired Bladder Contractility (DHIC)
    A condition characterized by involuntary detrusor contractions in which patients either are unable to empty their bladder completely or can empty their bladder completely only with straining due to poor contractility of the detrusor

    Detrusor Muscle
    Contracting muscle in the bladder that helps to expel urine

    Detrusor-Sphincter Dyssynergia (DSD)
    Damage to the nervous system can create a lack of coordination between the bladder and the external sphincter muscle. As a result, the bladder cannot empty completely which creates buildup of urinary pressure. DSD is the combination of these two factors and can lead to severe urinary tract damage.

    Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU)
    Surgical procedure using a camera and endoscopic instrument to cut a urethral stricture and fix the abnormal narrowing of the urethra.

    Diverticulum
    A pouch or sac in the lining of the mucous membrane of an organ.

    Dysuria
    Painful or difficult urination. This includes burning on urination. Dysuria is most commonly due to bacterial infection of the urinary tract causing inflammation of the bladder ( cystitis ) or kidney ( pyelonephritis ). Urination that is painful or in some way problematic

    Efferent: Carrying away; efferent limb: the part of the urinary or colorectal diversion that leads to the stoma.

    Electrical Stimulation
    A treatment that is an application of an electric current or impulse to the pelvic floor muscles and bladder to cause a muscle contraction. This treatment is used in people who have nerve damage to the bladder or pelvis.

    Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy (EHL)
    A technique that uses small shock waves to break up small kidney stones. This technique uses a special probe to break up small stones with shock waves generated by electricity. Through a flexible ureteroscope, the physician positions the tip of the probe 1 mm from the stone. Then, by means of a foot switch, the physician projects electrically generated hydraulic shock waves through an irrigating fluid at the stone until it is broken into small fragments. These can be passed by the patient or removed through the previously described extraction methods. EHL has some limitations: It requires general anesthesia, and is generally not used in close proximity to the kidney itself, as the shock waves can cause tissue damage. Fragments produced by the hydraulic shock also tend to scatter widely, making retrieval or extraction more difficult.

    Endoscope
    A lighted medical instrument consisting of a long tube inserted into the body, usually through a small incision. It is used for diagnostic examination and surgical procedures

    Endoscopic Resection
    Surgical removal of a body part with the use of an endoscope.

    Enterostomal
    A surgically-created permanent opening into the intestine through the abdominal wall.

    Excisional Biopsy
    The surgical removal of tissue for pathological analysis.

    Excretory Urogram (IVP)
    Also known as intravenous pyelogram. A test that uses X-rays and contrast dye to take pictures of the kidneys, ureter and bladder.

    Excretory Urography
    A test to evaluate the kidneys, urinary tract and bladder. Medicine is given through an intravenous line (IV). This medicine moves through the body and is ultimately concentrated in the kidneys. A series of X-rays are taken, and are viewed by the radiologist to evaluate the kidneys, urinary tract and bladder.

    External Continence Device (ECD)
    Male external urine control device that attaches to tip of penis.

    Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses highly focused impulses projected from outside the body to pulverize kidney stones. A non-surgical procedure using shock waves to break up kidney stones.
    Highly focused electrical impulses that are projected from outside the body to pulverize kidney stones.

    Extravasation
    Process of passing urine

    Extravesical
    Outside the bladder.

    Febrile
    relating to a fever.

    Fistulas
    An abnormal passageway in the body. The fistula may go from the body surface into a blindpouch or into an internal organ or go between two internal organs. in urologic terms, often includes a vesico-enteric fistula (between the bladder and the bowel) and vescio-vaginal (between the bladder and the vagina)

    Foley Catheter:
    A flexible plastic tube with a small balloon on one end. Inserted into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage. A rubber tube placed in the urethra, extending to the bladder, in order to empty the bladder. It is held in place with a small fluid-filled balloon.

    Functional Incontinence
    Leakage of urine due to a difficulty reaching a restroom in time because of physical conditions like arthritis or paralysis.

    Furosemides Renal Scan
    Kidney scan using a diuretic

    Genitourinary System
    The combined genital and urinary systems. This is also known as the genitourinary tract.

    Hematuria
    Blood in the urine (microscopic or gross). Blood in the urine, which can be a sign of a kidney stone or other urinary problem. Gross hematuria is blood that is visible to the naked eye. Microscopic hematuria cannot be seen but is detected on a urine test. Blood in the urine, visible or microscopic.

    Heminephrectomy
    Surgical removal of part of the kidney.

    Histological report
    The medical findings from a biopsy.

    Histology
    The study of tissue, usually conducted by a pathologist or a histologist.

    Hydronephrosis:
    Dilation of the kidney, often from obstruction. Swelling of the top of the ureter, usually because something is blocking the urine from flowing into or out of the bladder. A kidney distended with urine to the point that its function is impaired. Can cause uremia, the toxic retention of blood nitrogen.
    Swelling at the top of the ureter, usually because something is blocking the urine from flowing into or out of the bladder.

    Hypercalciuria
    Abnormally large amounts of calcium in the urine.

    Hyperoxaluria
    Unusually large amounts of oxalate in the urine, leading to kidney stones.

    Hyperuricosuria
    Excess excretion of uric acid in the urine.

    Hypokalemia
    an excessive low potassium level in the blood,

    Ileal Conduit
    A surgical techinque used to create a diversion for urine after removal of the urinary bladder. To create an ileal conduit, the surgeon takes a short segment of the small intestine and reconnects the remaining intestine so that it functions normally. One end of the removed short segment of intestine is placed at the skin surface to create the stoma. The ureters, which normally carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, are then attached to the other end of the segment of intestine. The urine travels through the newly formed ileal conduit and the stoma into an external collecting pouch. The pouch has an outlet for releasing urine into a toilet without removing it from your stoma.

    The Ileal Conduitis a small urine reservoir that is surgically created from a small piece of the patient's bowel. During this procedure, the ureters are attached to one end of the bowel piece; the other end is brought out onto the surface of the body to make a stoma. The patient then attaches an external, urine-collecting bag to the stoma. This bag needs to be worn at all times. Complications of the ileal conduit procedure include bowel obstruction, urinary tract infection (UTI), blood clots, pneumonia, upper urinary tract damage, and skin breakdown around the stoma.

    Ileal Conduit (urostomy)
    The bladder is removed or bypassed. A conduit is made
    out of a section of small intestine or colon that carries the
    urine to an opening on the abdomen. The urine is collected
    in a drainable pouch that is secured to the abdomen.

    The ileal conduit remains the standard for urinary diversion after cystectomy in the elderly and in persons with advanced cancers or other medical complications which would preclude long surgical procedures; this surgery is usually less than 4 hours.

    Two main alternatives to the ileal conduit have become steadily more available: the catheterizable (through an abdominal stoma) continent reservoir (internal pouch) such as the Indiana or Mainz pouch, and the orthortopic neobladder such as the Studer or Kock neobladder.
    Ileocecal Valve
    Where the ileum of the small intestine meets the cecum of the large intestine.
    Ileocystoplasty

    Incontinence
    Leaking of or inability to control any substance, commonly refers to urine. Lack of bowel and/or bladder control.

    Indiana Pouch
    Catheterizable (through an abdominal stoma) continent reservoir (internal pouch)

    Indwelling Catheter
    A flexible tube retained in the bladder, used for continuous urinary draining to a leg bag or other device. Catheter that are inserted into the bladder to allow for continuous draining of urine.

    Intermittent Catheterization (ICP)
    Periodic insertion of a narrow tube through the urethra or through the front of the abdominal wall into the bladder to allow urine drainage. Using a catheter for emptying the bladder on a regular schedule. See self-catheterization.

    Intermittent catheterization should be performed every 3 to 8 hours or as recommended by your physician.

    InterStim Continence Control Therapy:
    A therapy used in treating urge incontinence. A device, about the size of a pacemaker, that is implanted into the sacral nerves of the lower spine, where it delivers electrical impulses that help regulate bladder function. A small device that is implanted into the sacral nerves of the lower spine where it delivers electrical impulses that help regulate bladder function.

    Interstitial
    Within a particular organ.

    Interstitial Cystitis
    Chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder that causes scarring, frequent, urgent, and painful urination, and pelvic pain. A disorder that causes the bladder wall to become swollen and irritated, leading to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining. IC is also known as painful bladder syndrome.

    Intraurethral Medication
    Medication administered via the urethra, the tube that carries urine outside the body from the bladder.

    Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
    Also referred to as IVP, intravenous urography or excretory urogram. An X-ray of the urinary tract. A dye is injected to make urine visible on the X-ray and show any blockage in the urinary tract.

    Intravenous Pyelography (IVP)
    A succession of X-ray films of the urinary tract following the injection into a vein of a contrast medium. An IVP tests kidney function and reveals the presence of stones, tumors, or obstruction in the urinary tract.

    Intravenous Urography
    Also referred to as IVP, intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram. An X-ray of the urinary tract. A dye is injected to make urine visible on the X-ray and show any blockage in the urinary tract.

    Intravesical
    Inside the bladder.

    Intravesical Pressure
    Refers to the pressure within the bladder.

    Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency (ISD):
    Weakening of the urethra sphincter muscles. As a result of this weakening the sphincter does not function normally regardless of the position of the bladder neck or urethra. This condition is a common cause of stress urinary incontinence.

    Intussusception
    When one section of intestine slips over the next, like a sheath.

    Involuntary Detrusor Contraction
    A bladder contraction that isn't under voluntary control.

    Irritable Bladder:
    Involuntary contractions of muscles in the bladder, which can cause lack of control of urination.

    Isotope Renal Scan
    An examination that uses small amounts of radioactive materials to measure the function of the kidneys.

    IVP
    X-ray of the kidneys utilizing intravenous dye injection. Also referred to as intravenous pyelogram, intravenous urography or excretory urogram. An X-ray of the urinary tract. A dye is injected to make urine visible on the X-ray and show any blockage in the urinary tract.

    Kidney
    One of two bean-shaped organs that filter wastes from the blood and discharge these waste products in urine. The kidneys are located on either side at the level of the 12th ribs toward the back. The kidneys send urine to the bladder through tubes called ureters.

    Kidney Infection
    Also called pyelonephritis. Urinary tract infection involving the kidney. Typical symptoms include abdominal or back pain, fever, malaise and nausea or vomiting.

    Kidney Stone
    A stone that develops from crystals that form in urine and build up on the inner surfaces of the kidney, in the renal pelvis or in the ureters. (Also see nephrolithiasis.). Hard mass composed of urine elements that form in the kidneys.

    KUB
    An X-ray of the abdomen, showing the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

    Laparoscopic Nephrectomy
    Removal of a kidney by using a laparoscope, an instrument in the shape of a tube that is inserted through the abdominal wall to give an examining doctor a view of the internal organs.

    Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty
    Repairing kidney blockage by using a laparoscope, an instrument in the shape of a tube that is inserted through the abdominal wall to give an examining doctor a view of the internal organs.

    Laparoscopic Surgery
    Surgery performed with an instrument in the shape of a tube that is inserted through small cuts. Using a small video camera and a few customized instruments, the surgeon can work in many body cavities without dividing skin from muscle thus reducing recovery time and complications.

    Laparoscopy
    A technique that allows internal organs to be observed directly through a piece of optical equipment (laparoscope) inserted into the body through a small surgical incision. Generally less invasive surgery that uses a laparoscope to visualize internal organs through a small incision.

    Laparotomy
    An operation in which the abdominal cavity is opened and inspected directly.

    Leg Bag
    External bag which is strapped to the leg for collection of urine.

    Lesion
    A zone of tissue with impaired function as a result of damage by disease or wounding. Examples are scars, abscesses, tumors and ulcers.

    Lithotomy
    The removal of kidney or bladder stones by surgery.

    Lithotripsy
    A procedure done to break up stones in the urinary tract using ultrasonic shock waves, so that the fragments can be easily passed from the body. A non-invasive treatment for kidney stones. Shock waves, generated under water by a spark plug, crumble stones into pieces that will pass with urine.

    Lower Pole Stones

    Lower Urinary Tract Calculi.

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. A high-tech diagnostic tool to display tissues unseen in X-rays or by other techniques. A diagnostic test that uses electromagnetic energy to produce soft-tissue images of the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems.
    Mainz Pouch
    catheterizable (through an abdominal stoma) continent reservoir (internal pouch)

    Meatal Stenosis
    Narrowing at the end of the urine channel at the tip of the penis.

    Meatotomy
    Incision for the enlargement of the urethral opening at the tip of the penis

    Meatus
    The opening of the urethra.

    Mitrofanoff procedure

    Monti [Yang-Monti Ileovesicostomy]

    Negative
    The term describing a test result that does not show the presence of a substance for which the test was carried out.

    Neoadjuvant
    In addition to

    Neobladder
    A new bladder. The neobladder allows select patients to void naturally through the urethra.
    The neobladder, also known as 'continent orthotopic urinary reconstruction', appeals especially to younger patients who wish to avoid a stoma on the abdomen and/or wearing an ostomy bag. In many cases those with neobladders learn how to completely empty their bladders and do not require intermittent catheterization. However, this is a learned response and not a guarantee. In cases where 100% continence is not realized, regular or intermittent self-catheterization may be necessary.

    Most neobladder recipients regain daytime continence, although nocturnal incontinence may present a problem in up to 25%.

    It may occur that obstacles to the creation of a neobladder are only discovered during surgery, which would cause the surgeon to opt for another technique. Tumor involving the urethra requiring urethrectomy excludes the possibility of orthotopic reconstruction.
    In general, anyone who is an appropriate candidate for cystectomy is also an appropriate candidate for neobladder surgery provided that urethral and bladder neck biopsies are negative for cancer. Prior radiation or chronologic age should not be considered an absolute contraindication for continent diversion, but time for recovery and achieving urinary continence is longer than for younger patients (Studer & Zingg, 1997).

    Additional selection criteria for women include a normally functioning urethra and adequate manual dexterity for possible self-catheterization following neobladder construction (Nieh, 1997).
    Neobladder patients should perform pelvic floor exercises daily. They should also be prepared to accept a certain degree of nocturnal leakage. Failure to empty and a need for intermittent self-catheterization are also possibilities. Overall, though, patients express a very high degree of satisfaction with the function achieved with orthotopic neobladders.


    Key points in postoperative management include:
    • education to ensure that a normal functional capacity is achieved by gradually increasing the voiding interval in the early postoperative period;
    • regular residual-free voiding by pelvic floor relaxation to avoid overdistension; increased fluid intake, salt supplementation, and regular metabolic assessment; and cancer surveillance
    The neobladder is a bladder substitute; it does not work
    just like a regular bladder.
    A normal bladder does two things: it stretches to store and
    it contracts (squeezes) to empty urine. A neobladder will
    stretch to store urine, but it does not have the ability to
    contract (squeeze).
    This means that an individual will urinate in a slightly
    different way. The “new” bladder is emptied by relaxing the
    sphincter muscle and contracting the abdominal muscles.
    When the abdominal muscles are contracted, pressure is
    put on the bladder and this helps to push the urine out.

    Orthotopic continent urinary diversion, commonly referred to as neobladder, most closely resembles the normal urinary anatomy. The intestinal tract is used to fashion a new bladder, which is then attached to the urethra in the pelvis. Patients then urinate spontaneously via the urethra and may be required to catheterize to ensure complete bladder emptying. This form of continent urinary diversion has been used in both men and women requiring cystectomy.

    Nephrectomy
    Removal of an entire kidney.

    Nephritis
    Inflammation of the kidney.

    Nephrolithiasis
    Kidney stones.

    Nephrolithotomy(open):
    A surgical excision of kidney stones via the back or abdomen in which the kidney may be opened. It is the most invasive procedure for removing kidney stones. Because it is so traumatic, most kidneys can withstand no more than two such operations. Deep anesthesia is required, after which the surgeon makes a large (10-20 centimeter) incision in the patient's back or abdomen, depending upon where the stone is located. Either the ureter or the kidney isopened and the stone extracted. Most patients require prolonged hospitalization afterward, and recovery may take up to two months.

    Nephrostomy
    A surgical incision into a kidney.

    Neurogenic Bladder
    Also called neuropathic bladder. Loss of bladder control caused by damage to the nerves controlling the bladder. Any bladder disturbance due to an injury of the nervous system.
    Incontinence may be related to defects in the nervous system, which conducts urination signals between the bladder and the brain. Such cases of neurogenic bladder -- for example, in patients with diabetes, Parkinson's disease, or myelomeningocele (bulging out of the spinal cord through a defect in the spine) -- may not be associated with the severe irritative symptoms seen in bladder infections. Instead, patients may have severe, total incontinence, a rigid bladder and a nonfunctional sphincter mechanism.

    Oliguria
    The condition of passing small amounts (under 500ml) of urine per day.

    Open Abdominal Surgery
    Sometimes incontinence surgery takes place via an incision through the abdomen. Two standard suspension procedures that require abdominal incisions are the Marshall Marchetti Krantz procedure and the Burch procedure. The Marshall Marchetti Krantz (MMK) procedure is still offered in many medical centers throughout the United States, but it is no longer a favored technique. This is because the sutures (stitches) in the procedure are placed around the urethra, creating the potential for obstruction; in addition, the surgical entryway limits the physician's ability to correct cystocele (herniation of the bladder into the vagina). During the MMK procedure, the bladder neck and urethra are separated from the back surface of the pubic bone. Sutures are placed on either side of the urethra and bladder neck, which are then elevated to a higher position. The free ends of the sutures are anchored to the surrounding cartilage and pubic bone. The Burch procedure, also known as Burch colposuspension (vaginal suspension), often is performed when the abdomen is already open for another purpose, such as abdominal hysterectomy (removal of the uterus). During the suspension procedure, the sutures are placed laterally (sideways), which avoids urethral obstruction and allows the physician to repair any small cystoceles that may be present. The bladder neck and urethra are separated from the back surface of the pubic bone. The bladder neck then is elevated by means of lateral sutures that pass through the vagina and Cooper's (pubic) ligaments. The vaginal wall and ligaments are brought together without tension, and the sutures are tied.

    Open Nephrolithotomy
    The most invasive surgical procedure for removing kidney stones.
    Is the most invasive procedure for removing kidney stones. Because it is so traumatic, most kidneys can withstand no more than two such operations. Deep anesthesia is required, after which the surgeon makes a large (10-20 centimeter) incision in the patient's back or abdomen, depending upon where the stone is located. Either the ureter or the kidney isopened and the stone extracted. Most patients require prolonged hospitalization afterward, and recovery may take up to two months.

    Orthotopic
    In the normal or usual position.
    Of or relating to the grafting of tissue in a natural position; transplant, substitute or replacement

    Orthotopic neobladder, Orthotopic continent urinary diversion
    Orthotopic” means “in the same place” and “neobladder” means new bladder. So an orthotopic neobladder is a substitute or “new” bladder that is placed in the same location as
    the “old” bladder.

    The major advantages of this procedure are:
    • An external collection pouch is not required.
    • An abdominal stoma is not required.
    • Most individuals are able to empty the neobladder by
    urinating.

    It is a A SURGICAL OPTION FOR BLADDER DIVERSION [ex- Studer or Kock neobladder.]

    Ostomy
    A surgical procedure such as a colostomy or ileostomy, in which an artificial opening for excreting waste matter is created. An opening in the skin to allow for a suprapubic cystostomy (catheter drainage), for elimination of intestinal contents (colostomy or ileostomy) or for passage of air (tracheostomy).

    Ostomy Bag
    Bag that collects urine draining from an artificial opening into the urinary or gastrointestinal canal.

    Overactive Bladder
    A condition characterized by involuntary bladder muscle contractions during the bladder filling phase which the patient cannot suppress. A condition in which the patient experiences two or all three of the following conditions: urinary urgency, urge incontinence or urinary frequency--defined for this condition as urination more than seven times a day or more than twice at night.

    Overflow Urinary Incontinence
    Leakage of small amounts of urine from a bladder that is always full.

    Oxalate
    A chemical that combines with calcium in urine to form the most common type of kidney stone (calcium oxalate stone).

    Parasympathetic:
    A part of the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic activity causes contraction of the bladder and assists in the urination process.
    Patulous Urethra
    stretched out urethra

    Percutaneous
    To place or perform a procedure underneath the skin. No incision (cutting) is necessary.

    Percutaneous Drainage
    Draining of fluid by a catheter via the skin.
    Percutaneous Lithotripsy (per=through, cutis=skin)
    The stone in the kidney is reached with a scope through a small wound in the skin and through the tissues of the kidney. The exact location of the stone is monitored with the ultrasound device. Like in the transurethral lithotripsy the stone is then disintegrated with an oscillating device. This technique is used in cases of large stones, when a treatment with the external lithotryptor would take too much time and too many sessions and/or in cases of obstruction of the outlet of the kidney in which the kidney could be damaged if it takes too long to treat the stone. General anesthesia is necessary, although patient and kidney generally very well tolerate the treatment.

    Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCN):
    Manual extraction of kidney stones "through the skin". Percutaneous means "though the skin." In PCN, the surgeon or urologist makes a 1-centimeter incision under local anesthesia in the patient's back, through which an instrument called a nephroscope is passed directly into the kidney and, if necessary, the ureter. Smaller stones may be manually extracted. Large ones may need to be broken up with ultrasonic, electrohydraulic or laser- tipped probes before they can be extracted. A tube may be inserted into the kidney for drainage.
    Also known as PNL. A method for removing kidney stones through keyhole surgery through the back using an instrument called a nephroscope.

    Perineal, Perineum
    Related to the area between the anus and the scrotum in males and the area between the anus and the vagina in females.

    Peristomal Hernia

    Peritonitis
    Inflammation of the membrane that lines the abdomen.

    Periurethral Bulking Injections
    A surgical procedure in which injected implants are used to "bulk up" the area around the neck of the bladder allowing it to resist increases in abdominal pressure which can push down on the bladder and cause leakage.

    Piloerection
    "goose bumps" May be a sign of or present with autonomic dysreflexia (AD).

    Plication Technique
    Taking folds or tucks in the walls of an organ.

    Post-Void Residual (PVR) Volume:
    A diagnostic test which measures how much urine remains in the bladder after urination. Specific measurement of PVR volume can be accomplished by catheterization, pelvic ultrasound, radiography, or radioisotope studies. The volume left in bladder after the patient voids (urinates).

    Pouchitis
    Inflammation of the pouch created as treatment of a patient with ulcerative colitis or for urinary diversions made out of intestine

    Pressure Flow Study
    Pressure-flow is one of the most important and difficult urodynamic studies to perform and interpret. Yet pressure-flow measurement is essential for the proper understanding of altered mechanisms in urinary incontinence. In particular, pressure-flow study can help to define problems such as bladder outlet obstruction (blockage), which is a major factor in the treatment of men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (noncancerous overgrowth of the prostate) and in the pre-operative assessment of women who are considering surgery for incontinence. To conduct the test, the patient is catherized with a pressure sensor and the bladder is filled. When the patient feels a strong desire to urinate, he or she is asked to void around the catheter into the uroflowmeter (combining a uroflow with a cystometrogram). Soon afterward, technicians measure the amount of urine remaining in the patient's bladder. The patient may undergo placement of a rectal catheter (a tube-like instrument positioned in the anus, the opening of the large intestine). The pressure-flow recording is made when the patient feels the urge to urinate. As previously noted, the analysis of a patient's pressure flow results can help to diagnose bladder outlet obstruction. Pressure flow study plays an important role in the evaluation of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Pressure flow study in women is not as clear-cut as in men, because women tend to void in a different manner and at different pressures. Moreover, women may respond to obstruction by reducing their urine flow, rather than by raising detrusor (bladder muscle) pressure. Therefore, some experts recommend pressure flow studies in female LUTS patients only after prior incontinence therapy or surgical repair of the urinary tract.

    Prosthetic Occluding Devices
    Prosthetic occluding devices can be used to block the flow of urine by squeezing the urethra shut. For men, such mechanical devices include penile clamps (for example, the Cunningham clamp) and compression rings. The penile clamp is a V-shaped casing with a foam cushion that fits over and under the penis. When closed, the penile clamp should stop the flow of urine without causing discomfort. Compression devices are adjustable rings that surround the penis and, when inflated with air, pinch off the urine flow. Individuals usually reserve occluding devices for temporary use with intrinsic sphincter deficiency. These devices must be removed at regular 2- to 3-hour intervals to empty the bladder. Therefore, only mentally competent individuals who are able to adjust them by hand and who are able to remember the bladder-emptying schedule should use them. Improper use of penile clamps and compression devices can result in penile and urethral erosion, penile edema (swelling), pain and obstruction.

    Proteinuria
    The presence of high levels of protein in the urine, indicating that the kidneys may not be working properly

    Pyelogram
    X-ray study of the kidney especially showing the pelvis (urine-collecting basin) of the kidney and the ureter

    Pyelonephritis
    Also referred to as kidney infection usually caused by a germ that has traveled up through the urethra, bladder and ureters from outside the body. Typical symptoms include abdominal or back pain, fever, malaise and nausea or vomiting.
    Bacterial infection of the kidney. Pyelonephritis can be acute (sudden) or chronic (slow, subtle, and stubborn). It is most often due to the ascent of bacteria from the bladder up the ureters to infect the kidneys. Pyelonephritis can be acute (sudden) or chronic (slow, subtle, and stubborn). It is most often due to the ascent of bacteria from the bladder up the ureters to infect the kidneys.
    The symptoms of pyelonephritis include flank (side) pain, fever, shaking chills, sometimes foul-smelling urine, urgency (to urinate), frequency (urinating), and general malaise. Tenderness is elicited on gently tapping over the kidney with a fist (percussion).
    The laboratory examination of the urine (the urinalysis) reveals white blood cells (pyuria, i.e. pus in the urine) and bacteria in the urine (bacteriuria). There is usually also an increase in circulating white cells in the blood (leucocytosis).
    Treatment involves appropriate antibiotics.

    Pyuria:
    The presence of pus in the urine; usually an indication of kidney or urinary tract infection. Inflammatory cells in the urine, often indicating infection.

  2. #2
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    Urological Procedures and Terms for SCI and other neurological conditions [R-V]

    Reflux
    In the urinary system, reflux is a condition in which urine travels backwards up the ureter from the bladder into the kidney. The backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureters and kidney.

    Renal
    Having to do with the kidney. From the Latin renes (the kidneys), which gave the French les reins which mean both the kidneys and the lower back.

    Renal Colic:
    The name given to an intermittent, but often very severe, abdominal pain which is most commonly caused by a tiny stone passing down the ureter, which is the tube which connects the kidney to the bladder.

    Renal Pelvis:
    The basin into which the urine formed by the kidneys is excreted before it travels to the ureters and bladder.

    Renal Scan:
    A nuclear medicine examination that uses small amounts of radioactive materials to measure the function of the kidneys.

    Renal Stones
    A stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). Also called a kidney stone.
    Renal stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones occur in 1 in 20 people at some time in their life.
    The development of the stones is related to decreased urine volume or increased excretion of stone-forming components such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate. The stones form in the urine collecting area (the pelvis) of the kidney and may range in size from tiny to staghorn stones the size of the renal pelvis itself.
    A 4 mm stone has an 80% chance of passage while a 5 mm stone has a 20% chance. If a stone does not pass, certain procedures (usually by a urology specialist doctor) may be needed.

    Renal Ultrasound
    A non-invasive test in which a transducer is passed over the kidney producing sound waves that bounce off the kidney, transmitting a picture of the kidney on a video screen. The test is used to detect any abnormalities.

    Resection
    Surgical removal.

    Residual Stone Fragments

    Residual Urine
    Amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination. Urine that remains in the bladder after voiding. Too much left can lead to a bladder infection.

    Retention
    In ability to empty urine from the bladder, which can be caused by atonic bladder or obstruction of the urethra.

    Retrograde
    Backwards.

    Retrograde Pyelography (RP)
    Radiographic imaging of the ureters and collecting system of the kidneys by introducing a dye opaque to X-rays by way of urinary catheter. Insertion of contrast material directly into the kidney through an instrument.

    Retrograde Urethrogram
    X-ray diagnostic test to evaluate appearance and integrity of the urethra

    Retroperitoneoscopic Nephrectomy
    Minimally invasive surgical technique that uses a laparoscopically inflated balloon to create an artificial cavity in the retroperitoneum without opening the peritoneum in order to remove the kidney.
    Re-tubularized Small Bowel (the Yang-Monti Ileovesicostomy).

    Saline
    Containing salt.

    Self-Catheterization
    Inserting a thin, flexible tube into the bladder through the urethra to allow drainage of urine. Intermittent catheterization (IC), the goal of which is to empty the bladder as needed, on one's own, minimizing risk of infection.

    Sepsis
    Presence in blood or other body tissues of harmful bacteria spreading from a focal point of infection. Commonly called a "blood stream infection." The presence of bacteria (bacteremia) or other infectious organisms or their toxins in the blood (septicemia) or in other tissue of the body. Sepsis may be associated with clinical symptoms of systemic (bodywide) illness, such as fever, chills, malaise (generally feeling "rotten"), low blood pressure, and mental status changes. Sepsis can be a serious situation, a life threatening disease calling for urgent and comprehensive care.
    Treatment depends on the type of infection, but usually begins with antibiotics or similar medications.
    Also known as blood poisoning, septicemia.
    What is sepsis?
    Sepsis is a potentially dangerous or life-threatening medical condition, found in association with a known or suspected infection (usually but not limited to bacteria) whose signs and symptoms fulfill at least two of the following criteria of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS):
    elevated heart rate (tachycardia) >90 beats per minute at rest
    body temperature either high (>100.4F or 38C) or low (<96.8F or 36C)
    increased respiratory rate of >20 breaths per minute or a PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood) <32 mm Hg
    abnormal white blood cell count (>12000 cells/µL or <4000 cells/µL or >10% bands [an immature type of white blood cell])
    Patients that meet the above criteria have sepsis and are also termed septic.
    The majority of cases of sepsis are due to bacterial infections, some are due to fungal infections, and very few are due to other causes of infection or agents that may cause SIRS. The infectious agents, usually bacteria, begin infecting almost any organ location or implanted device (for example, skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, surgical site, intravenous catheter, etc.). The infecting agents or their toxins (or both) then spread directly or indirectly into the bloodstream. This allows them to spread to almost any other organ system. SIRS criteria result as the body tries to counteract the damage done by these blood-borne agents.
    Common bacterial causes of sepsis are gram-negative bacilli (for example, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, E. corrodens), S. aureus, Streptococcus species and Enterococcus species; however, there are a large number of bacterial genera that have been known to cause sepsis. Candida species are some of the most frequent fungi that cause sepsis. In general, a person with sepsis can be contagious, so precautions such as hand washing, sterile gloves, masks, and clothing coverage should be considered depending on the patient's infection source.

    Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)
    Also referred to as SWL. High energy shock waves, in conjunction with X-ray and/or ultrasound, are focused on kidney or ureteral stones and cause the stone to break into tiny pieces which pass easily out of the body during urination.

    Sigmoid Cystoplasty

    Sphincterotomy
    The cutting of the bladder sphincter muscle to eliminate spasticity and related voiding problems.

    Stomal Stenosis

    Strictures
    Abnormal narrowing of a body passage. Scar formation.

    Struvite Stone
    A type of kidney stone caused by bacterial urinary infection.
    Also known as "infection stones," struvite stones account for up to 20% of all kidney stones. They are made up of crystallized magnesium and ammonia, common byproducts of excessive acidity in the urine caused by the bacterial breakdown of urea. This often occurs in persons who experience infections of the urinary system. For this reason they are most common in women, who suffer more urinary tract infections than men. Struvite stones typically develop in a jagged or branch-shaped structure called a "staghorn."

    Suprapubic
    An area of the central lower abdomen above the bony pelvis and overlying the bladder.

    Suprapubic Catheter
    A catheter surgically inserted into the bladder by incision above the pubis.

    Suprapubic Cystostomy
    A surgical procedure involving insertion of a tube or similar instrument through the stomach wall into the bladder to permit urine drainage from the bladder. A small opening made in the bladder and through the abdomen, sometimes to remove large stones, more commonly to establish a catheter urinary drain.

    Sympathetic Nervous System
    A part of the nervous system that causes relaxation of the bladder and contraction of the internal sphincter. Urine storage in the bladder is primarily the result of a functional sympathetic system.

    Symptomatic
    Having to do with a symptom or symptoms that arise from and accompany a particular disease or disorder and serves as an indication of it.

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
    elevated heart rate (tachycardia) >90 beats per minute at rest
    body temperature either high (>100.4F or 38C) or low (<96.8F or 36C)
    increased respiratory rate of >20 breaths per minute or a PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood) <32 mm Hg
    abnormal white blood cell count (>12000 cells/µL or <4000 cells/µL or >10% bands [an immature type of white blood cell]

    Transurethral
    Through the urethra. Several transurethral procedures are used for treatment of BPH. (See TUIP, TUMT, TUNA or TURP.)

    Transurethral lithotripsy (trans=by way of, so via the urethra)
    The stones are reached with a very slim tube-formed scope through the urethra, bladder and ureter and cab be disintegrated with the use of an oscillating probe. General anesthesia is necessary, because treatment can be painful while it is of eminent importance that the patient and the stone does not move.

    Ultrasound Ultrasonography
    High-frequency sound waves. Ultrasound waves can be bounced off of tissues using special devices. The echoes are then converted into a picture called a sonogram. Ultrasound imaging, referred to as ultrasonography, allows physicians and patients to get an inside view of soft tissues and body cavities, without using invasive techniques.

    Ultrasonic Lithotripsy
    Use of high-frequency ultrasound waves to destroy kidney stones gradually, which are then passed naturally by the patient or removed by grasping forceps.
    Similar to ureteroscopy, ultrasonic lithotripsy uses an optical scope and electronic probe, inserted into the ureter under epidural (spinal) anesthesia, to locate the stone. High-frequency ultrasound waves then are directed at the stone to break it up gradually. The fragments can either be passed naturally by the patient or removed by grasping forceps, basket extraction or suction through the scope instrument. The instrument is not flexible, however, so ultrasonic lithotripsy typically can be employed only when a straight path directly from outside the body to the stone is possible.

    Underactive Bladder
    A condition characterized by a bladder contraction of inadequate magnitude and/or duration to effect bladder emptying in a normal timespan. This condition can be caused by drugs, fecal impaction and neurologic conditions. Bladder contraction of inadequate magnitude and/or duration that prohibits the bladder from emptying normally; See also overflow incontinence.

    Upper Urinary Tract Calculi.


    Ureter
    One of two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

    Ureteral
    Pertaining to the ureter. Also referred to as ureteric.

    Ureteral Stones
    A kidney stone that has moved down into the ureter.

    Ureteroenterostomy
    Formation of an opening between a ureter and the intestine.

    Ureteroileostomy
    Implantation of a ureter into an isolated segment of ileum which drains through an abdominal stoma.

    Ureterolithiasis
    The formation or presence of a calculus or calculi in one or both ureters.

    Ureterolithotomy
    Removal of a stone lodged in the ureter.

    Ureteroneocystostomy
    An operation whereby a ureter is implanted into the bladder.

    Ureteropelvic Junction (UPV)
    Also referred to as UPJ. A blockage of a ureter in the region where the ureter enters the pelvis. Most often caused by a kidney stone.

    Ureteroscope
    A cystoscope ued to view the ureters for a possible ureter or kidney stone. If a stone is lodged higher in the urinary tract, the doctor may extend the cystoscope through the bladder and up into the ureter. The doctor can then see the stone and remove it with a small basket at the end of a wire inserted through an extra tube in the ureteroscope. The doctor may also use the extra tube in the cystoscope to extend a flexible fiber that carries a laser beam to break the stone into smaller pieces that can then pass out of the body in the urine. Ureteroscopy may be done under a spinal or general anesthetic.

    Ureteroscopy
    Also known as URS. A ureteroscope is inserted through the urethra and bladder to inspect the ureters. Often used for retrieval of kidney stones.

    Ureterovesicostomy
    Surgical joining of a ureter to the bladder.

    Ureters
    Tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

    Urethra
    A tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In males, the urethra serves as the channel through which semen is ejaculated and it extends from the bladder to the tip of the penis. In females, the urethra is much shorter than in males.

    Urethral
    Relating to the urethra, the tube tha carries urine from the bladder to outside the body.

    Urethral Obstruction
    A blockage in the urethra. A kidney stone is the most common cause.

    Urethral Stent
    Thin catheter inserted into the ureter to carry urine from the kidney to the bladder or to an external collection system.

    Urethral Stricture
    Scarring of tissue that causes narrowing or blockage of the canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.

    Urethrorrhea
    An abnormal discharge from the urethra.

    Uric Acid Stone:
    A kidney stone that may result from animal protein in the diet. When the body breaks down this protein, uric acid levels rise and can form stones.
    Uric acid is a normal byproduct made by the body as it breaks down protein. It is normally flushed out by the kidneys in urine. However, some people, particularly men, build up excessive uric acid concentrations in their kidneys or joints. In the joints, this can lead to gout, an inherited disorder of uric acid metabolism with painful arthritic symptoms. If this buildup occurs in the kidneys as well, it often results in the formation of uric acid stones. An estimated 5% to 13% of patients with kidney stone disease, particularly men, develop uric acid stones. Genetics may play a role in uric acid stone propensity: Persons of Mediterranean descent, particularly those of Portuguese extraction, appear to have high incidences of uric acid stones, while those of Anglo-Saxon descent seem to be less at risk. Patients prone to developing uric acid stones typically are advised to reduce their consumption of high-protein foods, especially meat.

    Urinalysis
    Urinalysis is a test in which a urine sample is analyzed in the laboratory for signs of infection, blood, urinary stones or other abnormalities. A clean-catch (midstream) or catheterized urine sample should be obtained for this study. Sometimes a urine culture is performed to determine the type of infectious organisms that may be present in the urinary tract. urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as a urine sample that contains bacteria in the amount of 105 CFU/ml or more. If blood, glucose (sugar), or protein are also present in the urine sample, further testing is indicated.

    A group of physical and chemical tests done on a sample of urine to check for various disorders, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract. A test of a urine sample that can reveal many problems of the urinary tract and other body systems. The sample may be observed for color, cloudiness, concentration; signs of drug use; chemical composition, including glucose; the presence of protein, blood cells, or germs; or other signs of disease.


    Normal test results for urine are:
    • color: varies from colorless to dark yellow. Certain foods may stain it.
    • specific gravity: ranges from 1.006 to 1.030. The higher the number, the more concentrated the urine.
    • pH, or relative acidity or alkalinity: ranges from 4.6 to 8.0. The average is 6.0, which is slightly acidic.
    • sugars, ketones, and proteins: None present.
    • blood: no red blood cells or hemoglobin are present.
    • bilirubin: none.
    • white blood cells: none.
    Abnormal test results for urine are:
    • color: other than normal.
    • specific gravity: higher or lower values. This may indicate kidney disorders. Exceptions are those related to food or liquid intake.
    • pH: overly acidic or alkaline urine. This warrants medical attention.
    • sugar and ketones, usually tested together: high levels of glucose and ketones may indicate diabetes.
    • protein: any present may indicate kidney disorders.
    • blood: any present may indicate bleeding from the kidney, a urinary tract infection, or trauma from rigorous exercise.
    • bilirubin: any present indicates liver or bile duct disease.
    • nitrites and white blood cells: their presence indicates a urinary tract infection.

    Urinary Calculus
    a calculus occurring in any portion of the urinary tract and especially in the pelvis of the kidney -- called also urinary stone, urolith

    Urinary Diversion
    A term used when the bladder is removed or the normal structures are being bypassed and an opening is made in the urinary system to divert urine. The flow of urine is diverted through an opening in the abdominal wall.

    Urinary Reservoir
    Surgically created structure which collects and stores urine.

    Urinary Retention
    Failure to empty the bladder totally.

    Urinary Tract
    The system that takes wastes from the blood and carries them out of the body in the form of urine. Passageway from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder and urethra.

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    An illness caused by harmful bacteria, viruses or yeast growing in the urinary tract. Bacterial invasion of the urinary tract, which includes bladder, bladder neck and urethra. Symptoms of UTI include urine that is cloudy, contains sediment and smells foul, and fever. UTI involving the kidneys is preventable but dangerous. Medications often prescribed for UTI include Keflex, Macrodantin, Furadantin, Septra, Bactim, Mandelamine, penicillin, and amoxicillin. Side effects vary, and may include nausea and vomiting, skin rash or hives.

    Urine Culture
    Sample of urine for diagnostic purposes.

    Urine Culture and Sensitivity (C S)

    Urine Infection & FDA Drug Labels on RxList.com
    Amikin, Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Augmentin ES, Augmentin XR, Azactam Injection, Bactrim, Ceclor, Ceftin, Cefuroxime, Cinobac, Cipro, Cipro IV, Cipro XR, Duricef, Floxin, Gantanol, Glumetza, Hiprex, Keflex, Macrobid, Maxipime, Mesnex, Methylene Blue, Nebcin, Neggram, Noroxin, Polymyxin B, Principen, Proquin XR, Prosed DS, Pyridium, Septra, Suprax, Trimethoprim, Urex, Urispas, Vancomycin Injection
    Urine pH
    A measurement of urinary acidity or alkalinity. The pH level of normal urine ranges from 4.5 to 8.0. The average level is slightly acidic (6.0). Highly acidic or alkaline urine may indicate a number of metabolic diseases. Alkaline urine also may indicate infection.

    Urochesis:
    Retention of urine.

    Urocystic
    Relating to the urinary bladder.

    Urodynamic Test
    Measures the bladder's ability to hold and release urine. Diagnostic tests to examine the bladder and urethral sphincter function.

    Urodynamic Testing
    Procedures designed to provide information about a bladder problem. Measures of the bladder's ability to hold and release urine.

    Urodynamics
    A series of tests that measures the bladder's ability to hold and release urine.
    Urodynamic studies are conducted to measure pressure in the bladder and to evaluate the flow of urine. Urodynamic studies are particularly useful for the diagnosis and confirmation of intrinsic sphincter deficiency and uncertain cases with mixed incontinence, overflow, urgency or total incontinence.

    Urolithiasis
    Stones in the urinary system.

    Urosepsis
    a toxic condition caused by the extravasation of urine into bodily tissues urosepsis: sepsis originating from a urinary tract infection

    Urostomy
    An opening through the skin to the urinary tract to allow urine to drain when normal voiding is not possible. A urostomy requires a pouch to be worn outside the body. A surgeon creates a urostomy by redirecting your urine to an opening created in the abdomen. The opening is called a stoma. Two main types of urostomy are available: Ileal conduit, and a Ureterostomy.

    Urothelium
    Lining of the urinary collecting system (kidney, ureter, bladder)

    Ureterostomy
    Very rarely, the surgeon connects the ureters directly to the abdominal wall to create a stoma. Like the ileal conduit, a ureterostomy requires a collecting pouch placed over the stoma because there are no muscles around the stoma to control the flow of urine.

    Versicouretal Reflux
    Urine from the bladder flowing back into the ureter. Also referred to as VUR. An abnormal condition in which urine backs up from the bladder into the ureters and occasionally into the kidneys, raising the risk of infection.

    Void
    To urinate, empty the bladder.

    Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCGM)
    Also referred to as a voiding cystogram. A catheter is placed in the urethra and the bladder is filled with a contrast dye. X-ray images are taken as the bladder fills and empties to show any blockage or reverse urine flow.

    Voiding Diary
    A voiding diary is a record of urinary habits over a 24-hour period. It can help your physician to determine the exact nature and severity of your bladder control problem. Some of the information gathered from a voiding diary may include: Frequency of urination Time-of-day occurrence of urination.

  3. #3
    It is not considered appropriate to copy text from another website, book or journal and post it on another site without giving a citation, and only very limited copy (and then a link) is allowed. Otherwise you put our site at risk of violation of copyright.

    (KLD)

  4. #4
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    The information was taken from multiple medical sites [e-medicine, WebMd, Urology Channel, urology health, osotmy websites, DrRajMd.com, NIH, etc.].

    If you feel you need to take the post done for fear of a lawsuit then do it.

    I was only trying to be helpful as it is hard to do research when you don't understand the medical terminology.

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    Senior Member SurfCat's Avatar
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    Thx peegy...it was helpful as i believe i have prostatis after reading here?
    "He gives strength to the weary and increases the power of the weak. Even youths grow tired and weary, and young men stumble and fall; but those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will RUN and not grow weary, they will WALK and not be faint."
    Isaiah 40:29-31

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    More Terms and/or added information:


    Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder. This has two intended results: increased bladder volume; and a reduced percentage of the bladder involved in contraction, that in turn results in lower internal pressures in the bladder during urination.



    An Indiana pouch is a surgically-created urinary diversion used to create a way for the body to store and eliminate urine for patients who have had their urinary bladders removed as a result of bladder cancer, pelvic exenteration, bladder exstrophy or who are not continent due to a congenital, neurogenic bladder. This particular urinary diversion results in a continent reservoir that the patient must catheterize to empty urine. The Indiana pouch has the advantage of not using an external pouch adhered to the abdomen to store urine.



    The Monti procedure is a surgical procedure in which a part of the gastrointestinal tract is used to create a continent conduit between the skin surface and the urinary bladder or a neobladder.



    Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy, also known as the Mitrofanoff procedure, is a surgical procedure in which the appendix is used to create a conduit between the skin surface and the urinary bladder. One end is connected by sutures to the urinary bladder and the other is connected to the skin to form a stoma. Generally, an incision is made into the umbilicus (belly button) so that it may serve as the canal for the catheter. Urine is typically drained several times a day by use of a catheter inserted into the Mitrofanoff canal. The Mitrofanoff procedure has been found to improve the life of people with spinal cord injuries, by increasing their independence.



    A suprapubic cystostomy (also known as a vesicostomy) is a surgically-created connection between the urinary bladder and the skin which is used to drain urine from the bladder in individuals with obstruction of normal urinary flow. Urinary flow may be blocked by swelling of the prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy), traumatic disruption of the urethra, congenital defects of the urinary tract, or by obstructions such as kidney stones passed into the urethra, and cancer. It is also a common treatment used among spinal cord injury patients who are unable or unwilling to use intermittent catheterization to empty the bladder, and cannot otherwise void due to detrusor sphincter dyssynergia.




    Urinary diversion is any one of several surgical procedures to reroute urine flow from its normal pathway. It may be necessary for diseased or defective ureters, bladder or urethra, either temporarily or permanently. Some diversions result in a stoma. Types: Ileal conduit urinary diversion (Bricker conduit), Indiana pouch, Neobladder to urethra diversion, and Ureterocutaneostomia.

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