05-15-2002, 04:43 AM
Sosunov AA and Chelyshev Iu A (2002). [Neural stem cells in the brain]. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 33 (1): 17-28. Summary: Stem cells in the central nervous system were usually considered as relevant for evaluation only in embryonic time. Recent advances in molecular cloning and immunological identification of the different cell types prove the presence of neurogenesis of the new neurons in adult mammals brains. New neurons are born in two areas of the mammal and human brain--sybventricular zone and subgranular zone of dentate gyrus. New born granular neurons of dentate gyrus have a great importance for memory and learning. New neurons originate from precursors which in culture and in situ could also transform into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, thus fulfill criteria of neural stem cells. In culture, mitotic activity of these stem sells depends on fibroblast growth factor 2 and epidermal growth factor. Depletion of cultural medium of these factors and addition of serum, other growth factors (Platelet-derived growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) leads to generation of neurons and astrocytes. Isolation and clonal analysis of stem cells is based on immunological markers such as nestin, beta-tubulin III, some types of membrane glicoproteids. Identification and visualization of stem cells in brain revealed two populations of cells which have properties of stem cells. In embryonic time, radial glia cells could give origin to neurons, in mature brain cells expressing glial fibrillar acidic protein typical marker of astrocytes fulfill criteria for stem cells. Neural stem cells could transform not only into mature neurons and glial cells but also into blood cells, thus revealing broad spectrum of progenitors from different embryonic tissues. Further progress in this field of neurobiology could give prosperity in the cell therapy of many brain diseases. Mordovian State University.