04-13-2003, 10:04 PM
• Lendvay TS and Marshall FF (2003). The Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and its Highly Variable Manifestations. J Urol 169:1635-1642. Summary: PURPOSETuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome affecting multiple organ systems and demonstrating highly variable clinical manifestations. Mutations in 2 tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2, are linked to the evolution of the hamartomatous lesions. We describe the incidence and epidemiology, variable clinical manifestations and their relationships to renal pathology, and the management of morbid sequelae.MATERIALS AND METHODSUsing the search term tuberous sclerosis, we performed a MEDLINE search of the literature identifying 3,196 articles and selected those from urological, surgical, oncological, genetic and pediatric journals. Special focus was placed on the incidence and management of renal lesions and on different clinical manifestations and how they relate to renal tumors.RESULTSDue to improved identification of the variable phenotypic expression, the reported incidence has increased. TSC1 and TSC2 mutations are related to various phenotypic manifestations and risks of malignancy, such as an increased incidence of the TSC2 mutation in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Renal sparing surgery and selective embolization techniques have mitigated the morbidity of the lesions.CONCLUSIONSWe now have a better understanding of the variability at the genotypic and phenotypic levels of the disease. We recommend that patients with tuberous sclerosis complex be evaluated by a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, including urologists, dermatologists, neurologists, pediatricians and geneticists. Close attention to these manifestations is necessary to ensure appropriate treatment of the sequelae of the tuberous sclerosis complex.