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• Ott SM (2001). Osteoporosis in women with spinal cord injuries. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 12 (1): 111-31. Summary: Decreased bone density and increased fracture risk are seen in patients with SCI. The bone resorption rate is markedly increased. Hypercalciuria, low PTH, and low 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D are commonly seen. Bed-rest studies show similar findings, but of lesser magnitude. Therapies to treat or prevent osteoporosis include optimal nutrition (with care to avoid exacerbating hypercalciuria). Weight-bearing or functional electrical stimulation cycle ergometry may prevent some of the bone loss, especially in acutely injured patients. Estrogen should be considered in postmenopausal or amenorrheic women, but not if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. More research on effects of estrogen is needed in this population. Bisphosphonates may also help prevent the acute bone loss; oral routes must not be used in recumbent patients. Thiazides could be useful as adjunct therapy. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-6426, USA.